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Concerning which see the Translator s Advertisement. 

PREFACE to this Translation by the Right Rev. X. Wise 
man, D.D. . . . . . xi 

Advertisement of the Translator . . . xxvii 

Preliminary Documents : mention and enumeration . xx\i 

1. Approbation of the Exercises by Pope Paul III . xxxii 

2. Testimonies of the Censors appointed by Pope 
Paul III . . . . . xxxv 

3. Advertisement to the First Edition of the Work . xxxvi 

4. Advertisement concerning the Emendations added 

by authority in the Edition of 1596 . . xxxix 

The Prayer, Anima Christi . . . xlii 

The Spiritual Exercises of St. Ignatius of Loyola. 

Twenty Annotations affording some understanding with 

respect to the Spiritual Exercises which follow . 1 
Title of the Exercises . . . .15 

Admonition how the opinion or proposition of another 
ought to be received . . . .15 

The First Week ; 

The Principle or Foundation . . .16 

Daily and Particular Examination . .17 

Four Additions concerning the same . .18 

Note concerning the figure of the lines for marking 

faults . . . . .19 

Figure of the said lines . . .19 



General Examination of Conscience . .19 

Concerning Thought . . - . .20 

Concerning Word . . . .21 

Concerning Deed . . . .24 

A Method of General Examination, comprehending 

five portions or points . . .25 

The use of General Confession and of Communion . 26 
The first Exercise of Meditation, according to the three 

powers of the mind, concerning three sins . 27 

Of the preparatory prayer and two preludes at the 

beginning of this and all the following Meditations 27 
Of the three points of this Meditation . . 28 

Of the colloquy (or colloquies) at the end of this and 

the other Meditations . . .31 

The second Exercise, concerning one s own sins . 32 

The third Exercise, being the Repetition of the first and 

second . . . . .35 

How a Repetition is to be made . . .35 

Three colloquies at the end . . .35 

The fourth Exercise, being a repetition (a summing up) 

of the third, with the same three colloquies . 36 

The fifth Exercise, concerning Hell . . 36 

Two Notes ; the first concerning adding further Exer 
cises ; the second concerning the hours of the Exer 
cises and their number in the day . . 38 
Ten Additions for the better and more successful per 
formance of the Exercises . . .39 
Tenth Addition, concerning Penance . . 42 
Four further Observations 44 

The Second Week; 

A Contemplation (to be made twice in the day) concern 
ing the Kingdom of Christ . . .46 
Pious books to be read in this and the following 
Weeks 49 


First Day. Meditation 1, concerning the Incarnation, 

as below in the Mysteries of the Life of Christ . 49 
Of the preparatory prayer and two preludes at the 

beginning of this and the remaining Meditations . 49 
Of the three points, the persons, words, and actions; 

which method of meditation begins here . 50 

Meditation 2, concerning the Nativity . . 53 

Meditation 3, being the Repetition of the first and 

second ..... 55 

How this Repetition is to be performed . . 55 

Order to be observed in the remaining Repetitions . 55 

Meditation 4, being a Repetition of the third . 55 

Meditation 5, being the Application of the Senses to 

the foregoing . . . .55 

Five things to be noted . . .57 

Second Day. Meditations on the Presentation and on 
the Flight into Egypt; with two Repetitions and the 
Application of the Senses as before . . 59 

Note with respect to diminishing the number of 

Exercises in the day . . .60 

Third Day. On our Lord s subjection to His Parents 
at Nazareth, and on His being found by them in the 
Temple ; with two Repetitions and the Application of 
the Senses as before . . . .60 

A Prelude concerning the consideration of the 

two states or kinds of life . .61 

Fourth Day. A Meditation concerning Two Standards, 
with a threefold colloquy of great importance; the 
whole to be made twice, and repeated twice . 62 

A Meditation concerning three Classes (Pairs) of men, 
with the same colloquies . . .66 

Note. How to overcome an ill-directed inclination 68 
Fifth Day. A Meditation concerning Our Lord s jour 
ney from Nazareth to the river Joi dan, and concern 
ing His Baptism ; to be made twice, and repeated 
twice, with the Application of the Senses in the evening 69 


The same throe colloquies as on the fourth day are to 
be added to each of the five Exercises on this and the 
following days of this Week . , .69 

Application of the particular Examination on this and 

the following days of the Exercises . . 69 

Sixth Day, On Oar Lord s going into the Desert and 
there staying ; the plan of the fifth day being followed 
throughout . . . .70 

Seventh Day. On the Calling of the Apostles . 70 

Eighth Day. On the Sermon on the Mount . 70 

Ninth Day. On Our Lord s walking on the waters . 70 
Tenth Day. On His teaching in the Temple . 70 

Eleventh Day. On the raising of Lazarus . . 70 

Twelfth Day. On the things done on Palm Sunday . 70 
Three Observations: 1. Concerning increasing or di 
minishing the number of Mysteries of Our Lord s 
Life to be meditated on ... 70 

2. When the consideration of Elections is to be begun . 71 

3. Concerning three Modes (degrees) of Humility ; for 
the attainment of the last of which the above three 
colloquies should be frequently and earnestly used . 71 

A Prelude towards making the Election . . 73 

An Introduction to the knowledge of the things to be 

chosen . . . . .74 

First Point. Things to be chosen must of necessity be 
good, or at least not bad . . .74 

2d. Some are changeable, some unchangeable . 74 

3d. A bad choice of what is unchangeable (i. e. one 
not sincerely directed to the glory of God) is no 
Divine vocation . . . .75 

4th. A good choice of what is changeable (t. e. one 
sincerely directed to the glory of God) need not be 
disturbed, but should rather be persevered in . 75 

Note. If a bad choice of things mutable has been 
made, it is expedient to correct such election (*. e. 
to reconsider it with a single eye to the glory of 
God) . . . . .75 


Concerning three more suitable times for making an 
election rightly; 1. When the Divine po\\er so im 
pels the will as to remove all doubt, or rather all 
power of doubting; 2. When the experience of the 
Divine dealing, and of that of the different spirits, 
affords sufficient light; 3. When the soul, in u tran 
quil state, exercises her natural powers . . 76 
Two Methods of making a good election in the third of 
the above cases. First Method, consisting of six 
points . . . . .77 
Second Method, consisting of four rules and one an 
notation . . . . .78 
Concerning Amendment or Reformation to be made by 

any one with respect to his state of life . . 80 

Observation of the highest importance to all who de 
sire to advance in spirituality . . .81 

Third Week. 

First Day. First Meditation, concerning the Last 
Supper . . . .82 

Three additional points of great consequence towards 
suffering with Christ, to be added to the considera 
tion of the persons, words, and actions, in the contem 
plations of this Week . . .82 
Note concerning the colloquies of this Week . 84 

Second Meditation, concerning the things done after 
the Supper, and in the Garden . . .85 

Four Annotations; 1. that the second Meditation is to 
be conducted after the plan of the first; two Repeti 
tions of the two together, and the Application of the 
Senses in the evening, being made ; 2. concerning the 
diminution, if expedient, of the number of Exercises 
to be performed in each day; 3. that the second and 
sixth of the Ten Additions are to be partially changed 
during this Week ; 4. that the particular Examina 
tion is to be applied as in the preceding Week . 86 


Second Day. Meditations, 1. on our Lord s being ap 
prehended and taken to the house of Annas, and on 
the things done there ; and 2. on His being taken to 
the house of Caiphas, and on the things done there ; 
with two Repetitions and the Application of the 
Senses as before . . . .88 

Third Day. l.On Our Lord s being taken to, and on the 
things done while He was with, Pilate; 2. on His 
being taken to, and on the things done while He was 
with, Herod . . . .88 

Fourth Day. 1. On His return from Herod, and on part 
of the things done while He was with Pilate; 2. on 
the remainder of the things done while He was with 
Pilate . . . .88 

Fijth Day. 1. On His being taken to Calvary, and cru 
cified ; 2. On the things done while He was on the 
Cross, and on His Death . . .88 

Sixth Day. 1. On His being taken down from the Cross, 
and on the things done up to His Burial; 2. on His 
Burial, and on the desolation of His Mother . 89 

Seventh Day. Med. 1. on the whole of the Passion 
together ; 2. on the same; 3, 4, and 5. instead of the 
Repetitions and Application of the Senses, the Body 
of our Lord in the Sepulchre, and the solitude of His 
Mother and Disciples, to be considered as frequently 
as possible throughout the day . . .89 

Note with respect to dividing or uniting the Mysteries 
of the Passion, according as any one may wish to 
spend a longer or a shorter period in the contempla 
tion of it . . . S J 

Eight Rules for rightly regulating one s food . 90 

Fourth Week; 

First Contemplation of the First day. On the Resur 
rection and first Appearance 


Two points (how Our Lord s Divinity shews itself, and 
how He consoles His own) to be added to the accus 
tomed three (the persons, words, and actions) in the 
contemplations of this Week ; and one or more col 
loquies to be made . . 95 

Concerning the remaining Contemplations and Days : 
four notes : 1. of the Mysteries to be contemplated 
in this Week, and of the manner of contemplating 
them ; also of dividing or uniting them as be 
fore : 2. of the number of Exercises which is expe 
dient in the day ; of the distribution of the hours ; 
and what is especially to be aimed at iu the Applica 
tion of the Senses : 3. of the number of the points, 
and of determining them beforehand : 4. of altering 
certain of the Ten Additions . . .97 

A Contemplation 

intended to excite in us spiritual love; including two 
notes at the beginning, and a form of entire oblation 
of one s self and all that belongs to one at each 
point . . . . .99 

Three Methods of Praying. 

The first Method . . . .102 
Note, How to imitate Our Lord or His Mother in 

the use of the senses . . .104 

The Second Method of Praying . . .105 

Three Rules concerning it. . . .106 

Of the colloquy . . . .106 

The third Method of Praying . . .107 

Two rules concerning it . . .108 

The Mysteries of the Life of our Lord Jesus 
Christ, with their points. 

Note. Whence the words of the Mysteries are 
taken, aud why they are distributed into points . 109 


for the Second Week. 


Of the Annunciation .... 109 

Visitation . . . . 11O 

Nativity of Our Lord . . .111 

Shepherds . . . .111 

Circumcision . . . .112 

Three Mages . . . .112 

Purification and Presentation . .113 

Flight into Egypt . . .113 

Return from Egypt . .114 

Of Our Lord s Life from 12 to 30 . . .114 
Going up to the Temple in His 12th year 115 

Baptism . . .116 

Temptation . . .116 

Of the Calling of the Apostles . . .117 

Miracle at the Marriage . . .118 
Casting out of the Buyers and Sellers the first 

time . . . .118 

Sermon on the Mount . . .119 

Calming of the Tempest . . .120 

Walking on the Waters . . .120 

Sending forth of the Apostles . .121 

Conversion of Magdalen . . .122 

Feeding of the five thousand . .123 

Transfiguration . . . .124 

Raising of Lazarus . . .124 

Supper at Bethany . . .125 

Day of Palms . . . .126 

Preaching in the Temple . . .126 

For the Second WfeJc. 

Of the Last Supper . . . .126 

Mysteries in the Garden . . .128 

Of Our Lord s being taken and brought to Annas . 129 

Of the things done in the house of Caiphas . .130 

Accusation before Pilate. 131 



Of the Transmission to Herod . . 132 

Return to Pilate . . . .133 

Condemnation and Crucifixion . .134 

Mysteries on the Cross . . .134 

Burial . 136 

For the Fourth Week. 

Of the Resurrection and first Appearance . . 137 

second Appearance . . .137 

third Appearance . . .138 

fourth Appearance . . .139 
fifth Appearance .... 139 

sixth Appearance . . .140 

seventh Appearance . . .141 

eighth Appearance . . .141 

ninth Appearance . . .142 

tenth Appearance . . .143 

eleventh Appearance . . .143 

twelfth Appearance . . . 143 

thirteenth Appearance . . .143 

Ascension . . . 144 

Fifteen Rules 

For the perception and distinguishing of the different 
spirits, more suitable to the First Week 146 

Eight Further Rules, 

Useful for the fuller discerning of spirits, and more suit 
able to the Second Week . 157 

Seven Rules 
To be observed in the distribution of Alms . 163 


Six Eules 


For the perception and distinguishing of Scruples . 168 

Eighteen Rules 

For thinking with the Orthodox Church .. .173 

Additional Literal Renderings of the Spanish Autograph, 
together with some Additional Notes ; concerning 
both which see the Translator s Advertisement 187 


THERE are many books from which the reader 
is taught to expect much ; but which, perused, 
yield him but little profit. Those are few and 
most precious, which, at first sight, and on 
slender acquaintance, seem to contain but little ; 
but the more they are studied, the more in 
struction, the more solid benefit, they bestow : 
which are like a soil that looks bare and un 
adorned, but which contains beneath its surface 
rich treasures that must be digged out and 
drawn from a great depth. 

To this second class I know no book that so 
justly belongs as the little work here presented 
to the public. The Word of God, in His Holy 
Scriptures, is beyond everything else that has 
been written in this, that without, it is all fair, 
and within all rich ; that it is perfect to the eye 
that looks for beauty, and to the understanding 
that seeks for hidden wisdom. In the Exer- 


cises of St. Ignatius, on the other hand, many 
will be no doubt disappointed, when for the first 
time they look into them. They have heard of 
the wonderful effects which they have produced, 
of the innumerable conversions which they have 
wrought, of the spiritual perfection to which 
they have led ; and they will see in the text of 
the work itself nothing but simplicity of form, 
plainness of sentiment and diction, hints often 
rather than explanations, germs of thought 
rather than developments, skeletons often more 
than perfect forms, sketches instead of pictures; 
no poetry, no emotions, no high-flown ideas, 
no enthusiastic aspirations ; but maxims of 
eternal import inculcated with the calmness of 
a philosopher; the sternest truths delivered as 
obvious and self-demonstrating propositions ; 
the sublimest moral lessons of the Gospel, self- 
denial, renunciation of the world, contempt of 
life, perpetual contineney, and blind obedience, 
taught as simple virtues attainable to any Chris 
tian. And yet throughout there is a manifest 
conviction of the adequacy of the means to the 
end, in the writer s mind ; there is nothing ex 
perimental, nothing optional, nothing left to be 
discovered ; but every method is laid down as 


certain, every result reckoned on as sure. It is 
a plan framed by a master-mind (unless we ad 
mit a higher solution), capable of grappling 
with perhaps the most arduous and complicated 
task, and, without overlooking a difficulty, and 
apparently without proportionate means, confi 
dent of its success. A man is presumed to 
enter into the course of the Spiritual Exercises 
in the defilement of sin, under the bondage of 
every passion, wedded to every worldly and 
selfish affection, without a method or rule of 
life ; and to come out from them restored to 
virtue, full of generous and noble thoughts, self- 
conquering and self-ruling, but not self-trusting, 
on the arduous path of Christian life. Black 
and unwholesome as the muddy water that is 
poured into the filter, were his affections and 
his soul ; bright, sweet, and healthful as the 
stream that issues from it, they come forth. 
He was as dross when cast into this furnace, 
and is pure gold when drawn from it. 

Now the superficial reader of this excellent 
book will ask, how is this accomplished ? 
Where is the power, the skill, nay, perhaps he 
will add, the machinery, by which such results 


are obtained ? Whence springs the great con 
fidence of its writer in its efficacy ? 

The answer to this question it is not easy to 
give in the short compass of a preface ; nor 
will I, therefore, attempt it : but perhaps a 
few pages of explanation of the Exercises will 
enable the reader to discover it for himself. 

It must be observed, then, that this is a 
practical, not a theoretical, work. It is not a 
treatise on sin or on virtue ; it is not a method 
of Christian perfection ; but it contains the en 
tire practice of perfection, by making us at once 
conquer sin, and acquire the highest virtue. 
The person who goes through the Exercises is 
not instructed, but is made to act ; and this 
book will not be intelligible apart from this view. 

The reader \vill observe that it is divided 
into Four Weeks ; and each of these has a 
specific object, to advance the exercitant an 
additional step towards perfect virtue. If the 
work of each week be thoroughly done, this is 
actually accomplished. 

The first week has for its aim the cleansing 
of the conscience from past sin, and of the 
affections from their future dangers. For this 
purpose, the soul is made to convince itself 


deeply of the true end of its being, to serve 
God and be saved, and of the real worth of all 
else. This consideration has been justly called, 
by St. Ignatius, the principle or foundation of 
the entire system. No limits are put to the 
time that may be spent upon this subject : it 
ought not to be left till the mind is made up, 
that nothing is worth aiming at but God and 
salvation, and that to all other things wo must 
be indifferent. They are but instruments or 
hindrances in the acquisition of these, and ac 
cordingly they must be treated. It is clear that 
the person, who has brought himself to this 
state of mind, has fully prepared himself, for 
submitting to whatever he may be required to 
do by God, for attaining his end. 

Upon this groundwork is raised the duty of 
the first week. Considerations of the punish 
ment of sin, which lead us gradually to an ab 
horrence of it, in itself, make the sinner sift and 
thoroughly unburthen his conscience. "The 
fear of God 11 , which " is the beginning of wis 
dom," is thus the first agent in the great work 
of change ; a change not prospective or mental, 
but real. Sin is abandoned, hated, loathed. 

At the conclusion of the painful task, the 


soul finds itself prostrate and full of anxieties. 
The past is remedied ; but what is to be done 
for the future \ A rule to guide us, an example 
to encourage us, high motives to animate us, 
are now wanting ; and the three following weeks 
secure us these. 

In the second, the life of Christ is made our 
model : by a series of contemplations of it we 
become familiar with His virtues, enamoured of 
His perfections ; we learn, by copying Him, to 
be obedient to God and man, meek, humble, 
affectionate ; zealous, charitable, and forgiving ; 
men of only one wish and one thought, that of 
doing ever God^s holy will alone ; discreet, de 
vout, observant of every law, scrupulous per 
formers of every duty. Every meditation on 
these subjects shows us how to do all this ; in 
fact, makes us really do it. 

Still up to this point we have been dealt 
with kindly, as the Apostles were treated by 
their good Master. He told them not of these 
things, that is, of His sufferings, at first, lest 
sorrow should fill their hearts (John xvi, 5, 6). 
The milk of consolation and encouragement 
must precede the strong food of patience and 
conformity. The third week brings us to this. 


Having desired and tried to be like Christ in 
action, we are brought to wish and endeavour 
to be like unto Him in suffering. For this 
purpose His sacred Passion becomes the en 
grossing subject of the Exercises. The soul 
which has been brought near him in admiration 
now clings to Him in loving sympathy, nay, 
finds her admiration redoubled at His divine 
bearing in sorrow, ignominy, and pain. Having 
already made up her mind to be like Him in 
all things, she is not now to be scared from 
resemblance by the bitterness of suffering or 
disgrace. On the contrary, she wishes to suffer 
for Him and with Him, for the very love s sake, 
which made Him so suffer. Every meditation 
on the Passion strengthens, deepens, matures 
this feeling, and renders it a new power and 
affection of the soul. She has become a mar 
tyr in resolution and desire ; she would go forth 
from this holy work of meditation to the reali 
sation of her earnest desire to suffer with Jesus ; 
she is prepared for mortifications, for tribula 
tions, for persecutions, for death, for anything 
whereby she may be likened to her Lord and 

But she must be convinced and feel, that if 



she suffers, she shall also be glorified with Him : 
and hence the fourth and concluding week 
raises the soul to the consideration of those 
glories, which crowned the humiliations and 
sufferings of our Lord. As throughout He is 
represented to us in His blessed Humanity as 
being our model, so here, are our thoughts 
directed to Him, triumphant over death, but 
still conversing among men, those now who 
love Him; that so our love may be likewise 
with Him, in holy conversation and familiar 
intercourse, and so He may draw up our hearts 
with Him, when He ascends to His Father ; 
and there they may ever abide where our 
Treasure is. Thus have we been gradually 
raised from fear to love, which henceforward is 
the " informing principle" (to borrow a phrase 
from the Schools) of our lives and being. 

It is clear that if these various principles and 
feelings have been really infused into us, if they 
have been worked into our hearts, so as to form 
a part of their real practical influences, we shall 
come from the Exercises, duly performed, com 
pletely changed, and fitted for our future course. 
Many indeed have experienced this. They 
have entered the place appointed for them, like 


a vessel shattered by the storms, bruised and 
crippled, and useless : they have come forth, 
with every breach repaired, every disfigurement 
removed ; and, what is of more importance, 
furnished with rudder and compass, sails and 
anchor, all that can direct and guide, impel 
and secure them. What wonder, if their 
songs of gratitude and joy resound along the 
main ? 

Two things will perhaps strike the reader as 
drawbacks to the attainment of this object : 
first, the scantiness of matter furnished in the 
book for filling up the time ; and secondly, the 
obvious want of a regulating and adapting 
power in its application. For it is clear, that 
the work of one week should be continued till 
its object is attained, and the exercitant is pre 
pared for the impressions of the next. These 
apparent wants are supplied by one essential 
element of a spiritual Retreat (for so the Exer 
cises reduced to action are popularly called), 
Direction. In the Catholic Church, no one is 
ever allowed to trust himself in spiritual mat 
ters. The Sovereign Pontiff is obliged to submit 
himself to the direction of another, in what 
ever concerns his own soul. The life of a good 


Retreat is a good Director of it. He it is that 
modifies (not arbitrarily but by fixed rules and 
principles*), the order of the Exercises, dimi 
nishes their number, and curtails their dura 
tion ; he shortens and lengthens each week, and 
watching the workings of grace on each one s 
spirit, suppresses meditations, or introduces ad 
ditional ones, to second them. It is he who 
prepares materials for the exercitant to meditate 
on, divides the subject for him into its parts, 
suggests its applications, and leads him step by 
step through his various duties. He wards off 
or suppresses disturbing emotions, spiritual 
dryness, dejection, and scruples ; he represses 
over-eagerness, rashness, and enthusiasm; and, 
regulating the balance of contending affections, 
endeavours to keep all at a steady and peaceful 
level, so that the grace of God may gently, and, 
as it were by a breath, move and regulate every 
determination. Let no one think of under 
taking these holy Exercises, without the guid 
ance of a prudent and experienced Director. 
It will be seen, that the Weeks of the Exer- 

* The Directorium is a short treatise indispensable for 
those who direct a Retreat. It was compiled from the 
maxims and practice of St. Ignatius and his first disciples. 


cises do not mean necessarily a period of seven 
days. The original duration of their perform 
ance was certainly a month ; but even so, more 
or less time was allotted to each week s work, 
according to the discretion of the Director. 
Now, except in very particular circumstances, 
the entire period is abridged to ten days ; 
sometimes it is still further reduced. But even 
so, the form and distribution of the Exercises 
must be strictly kept, and no anticipations or 
inversions must be permitted. It is impossible 
to make the slightest change in this respect 
without injury. Gladly would I enter fully into 
this subject, and show the admirable and beau 
tiful chain-work which connects all the Exer 
cises or meditations from the first to the last, 
connects them as clearly and as intimately as 
any series of sound mathematical propositions 
can be connected. But it would take a long 
essay to do justice to this matter. 

It is, however, to this logical and argumenta 
tive arrangement that the Exercises, in great 
measure, owe their certainty of result. The 
mind may struggle against the first axiom, or 
rather demonstrable truth, in the series ; but 
once satisfied of this, resistance is useless, as 


unreasonable ; the next consequence is inevi 
table, conclusion follows conclusion, and the 
triumph is complete. The passions may en 
trench themselves at each step, behind new 
works, but each position carried is a point of 
successful attack upon the next, and grace at 
length wins their very citadel. Many is the 
fool who has entered into a Retreat to scoff, 
and has remained to pray. 

Besides the regular work of the Exercises, 
there are other matters connected with them, 
which this volume contains. One of the most 
important of these is the method of " election" 
or choice of a state of life, a duty usually per 
formed in a spiritual retreat. This is perhaps 
the most delicate, difficult, and even dangerous 
point with which the Director and his disciple 
have to deal. No one can study the rules laid 
down by St. Ignatius without admiring their 
prudence, their sagacity, and their certain 
power. But they require a wise and steady 
hand and eye for their application. It has been 
reported that these Exercises are to be soon 
published as a work u adapted for members of 
the Church of England", in the same way as 
other Catholic books have appeared. If so, we 


cannot anticipate any result but misunder 
standing and fatal error, from the attempt to 
employ them as spiritual instruments. If left 
to individual application they will only lead the 
soul into a maze of perplexities and bewilder 
ment, and, deprived of their adjusting power, 
Direction, give rise to sadness and discourage 
ment, or presumption and self-will. And of this 
there will be a much greater danger, by far, than 
a similar use would cause in a Catholic, from 
the want of safeguard, which a definite dogmatic 
teaching alone can give, as well as of that aid 
which familiarity with ascetic principles, and 
the ordinary uso of the Sacraments confer. 
And if, on the other hand, it is intended to put 
the Exercises into practice under Direction, we 
are sure that much mischief will still ensue ; 
from the absence of all training and traditional 
rules, which guide the Catholic Director in his 
arduous duty. It will be the blind leading the 
blind, to the fatal detriment of both. Bits and 
particles of the Catholic system cannot be thus 
detached with impunity, and incorporated with 
another system. Not only is the effect a 
monstrous incongruity, but it is at once a piece 
of bad faith with one side, and of injustice to 
the other. 


Among the valuable matter contained in this 
work may bo certainly classed the " Three 
Methods of Prayer", which cannot be prac 
tised without great profit ; the golden "Rules 
for ever thinking with the Orthodox Church"; 
those for " almsgiving" and " for discovering 
scruples"; but, above all, the invaluable prin 
ciples and maxims for the u discernment of 
spirits", adapted, in two divisions, to the first 
and second weeks. These form the basis of 
treatises on this most difficult and important 
part of mystical theology. But they, more 
than any other, require application by an en 
lightened Director. 

What has been said will perhaps explain, 
though inadequately, the wonderful power and 
efficacy of the " Spiritual Exercises of St. Igna 
tius", in thoroughly reforming the soul, and 
bringing it from sin to steady virtue. But the 
grand secret may be said to consist in two 

First, the entire work is performed by prin- 
ciples, not by emotions which pass away. Con 
viction of the truth and reality of all that is 
inculcated is aimed at and secured ; reason is 
enlisted on the side of conscience ; and what- 


ever use is made of the feelings in the course of 
the Exercises, is but as scaffolding to assist in 
the erection of a solid structure of virtue, which 
will stand, and weather the storm, after it has 
been removed. 

Secondly, the mind is made to act through 
out, and to work out its own resolutions. No 
thing is imposed on us by others, either through 
persuasion or by authority : we are made to 
think, to conclude, to determine, and to act, by 
a process essentially our own ; so that there is 
no escape, and no danger from the reaction of 
self-love. No influence has been used, further 
than to guide rightly the exercise of our own 
powers ; and even that direction has been given 
to us with our eyes open, and under the full 
conviction that we cannot shrink from a single 


step, without going against reason and con 

It is now time to say a few words on this 
translation. The original of the Spiritual Ex 
ercises was written by St. Ignatius in Spanish. 
Of two translations made into Latin, in his own 
time, one was preferred for publication which 
was more elegant in its language. This is 
the standard version religiously adhered to 


in all subsequent editions. It therefore forms 
the text from which the present translation 
has been made. Fidelity has been aimed at 
in it, above every other quality. Its author 
has studied to make it as accurate as possible, 
at the cost of what might have been a more 
flowing style. It has also been carefully re 
vised and compared with the original by the 
writer of this preface. 

The present General of the Society of Jesus, 
anxious to regain, if possible, the original of 
the Saint, has published a new version from the 
Spanish, side by side with the common edition. 
It contains many important varieties. Such as 
appeared to the translator worthy of particular 
notice, have been incorporated in the present 

May this become an instrument in the hands 
of Divine Providence to bring many souls to 
grace and virtue ; and add to the many won 
derful fruits which this little volume has already 
produced to the Church. 

N. W. 

St. Marys College, 
Feast of the Sacred Heart, 1847. 

* [See the Translator s Advertisement.] 




THE kindness of the Right Rev. Prelate who 
has favoured the reader, as well as the trans 
lator and publisher, of these Exercises with the 
foregoing introduction to their meaning, has 
partly superseded the necessity of an Advertise 
ment : a few words, however, will be desirable, 
in order both to prevent mistake, and to put 
the reader more exactly in possession of what 
has been done in this Edition. 

Whilst, then, for the reason assigned in the 
preceding Preface, the present Translation ad 
heres scrupulously to the authorized Latin 
Version, in order, nevertheless, to ascertain 
and express with as much accuracy as possible 
the full sense of that Version, the Translator 
has throughout carefully availed himself as well 
of the new Literal Latin Translation from the 
Spanish Autograph published, side by side with 
the Common Version, by the present Father- 
General of the Company of Jesus (Father Ro- 
thaan)*, as of his copious and admirable Anno 
tations, in which latter are frequently noticed 

* His Second Edition, Rome, 1838, is the one which 
has been made use of by the present Translator, as well 
in loth Versions as in the Preliminary Documents, &c. 


the expressions both of the original Spanish it 
self, and of the ancient but unpublished Literal 
Latin Version spoken of in the second and third 
of the Preliminary Documents and in the Pre 
face (p. xxv) to the present Translation, and 
used by St. Ignatius himself; yet without 
making it his business, except in some few in 
stances, to inform the reader either in or under 
the text, of the differences between the Common 
Latin Version and this new one of Father Ro- 
thaan, before the beginning of the Mysteries of 
the Life of Christ. Throughout those Mysteries 
he has made a point of giving, either between 
brackets or at the foot of the page, at least all 
those differences to which attention is called in 
Father Rothaarfs Version itself, by the distinc 
tion of roman instead of italic type. In the 
subsequent portions of the work, without im 
posing upon himself the same rule, he has yet 
given a copious selection ; while both in these 
and in the Mysteries he has included a very 
considerable proportion of those remaining dif 
ferences which, though not marked by Father 
Rothaan with any difference of type, will never 
theless be of service, if compared with the Com 
mon Version, towards acquiring a more accu 
rate idea of the Author s meaning. In order 
partly to supply the place of a fuller expression 
of these differences in the preceding portions of 
the Exercises, he has appended to the end of 
the book the translation of whatever he had not 
already anticipated of a printed selection kindly 
lent him by the Right Rev. Author of the pre 
ceding Preface ; to which he has also, in the 


course of translating it, made copious additions 
from the above new and literal Version itself; 
availing himself at the same time of the oppor 
tunity, to make a few corrections (chiefly tacit*) 
in the body of the Work. Some at least of these 
corrections will perhaps have been anticipated 
by Dr. Wiseman (see p. xxvi of his Preface) ; 
but as the Translator has been prevented by 
the distance from ascertaining what corrections 
were made by his Lordship, he has thought it 
best to correct himself whatever in his own MS. 
he has observed to admit of being rendered 
more exact. 

A few Notes have been interspersed, as well 
among these Additional Literal Renderings, as 
at the foot of the page in the body of the Work ; 
drawn for the most part from the above-men 
tioned admirable Annotations, even when not ex 
pressed in the words, of Father llothaan; but in 
serted (except those which are given among the 
Additional Literal Renderings) within brackets, 
in order to distinguish them from the ancient 
notes appended to the Exercises by the authority 
mentioned in the fourth of the Preliminary Docu 
ments, and containing corrections of the Common 
Latin Version from the Spanish Autograph. In 
these latter, originally (see the above Document) 
placed at the end of the book, as the altered pas 
sages are often cited at greater length than can 
be at all necessary when the corrections are 
given at the foot of the page, and in a translation, 

* The " tacit" corrections have been made by merely 
giving in an amended form the passages of the Common 
Version to which the Literal Renderings correspond. 


it has been thought sufficient in the present 
Edition to give, in general, little more than the 
words actually altered. It may be added here, 
that the parenthetical marks found in the quo 
tations fron the New Literal Version are to be 
understood, wherever the contrary is not ob 
vious, merely as brackets. The explanatory 
words or expressions, or different renderings, 
contained within them, are generally speaking, 
not always, Father Rothaan s; the change from 
Latin to English, while it rendered some of his 
insertions needless, having at the same time 
rendered some new ones necessary. 

The " Table of Contents" which follows the 
Title-page has been compiled (with the help of 
the fuller one of Father Rothaan) on a scale 
and plan which may render it a kind of Epitome 
or Synopsis of the whole book ; and, if studied 
carefully, will be no inconsiderable help towards 
understanding the Exercises themselves. 

In conclusion, the Translator has only to 
unite, in his own and the Publisher s name, in 
the pious prayer with which the Right Rev. 
Author of the preceding Preface ends. 

St. Germain en Laye, near Paris; 
Feast of St. Osmund, 1847. 

(From the Edition of Father Rothaan.} 

THE Documents, which it is the custom to 
place at the head of all Editions of our holy 
Father s book, could not be omitted in this new 
one. They are these which follow : 

i. The Letter Apostolic of Pope Paul III, 
by which the holy Father s Exercises are ap 
proved and recommended. 

II. The Testimonials of those to whom tho 
censorship of the book had been committed by 
Paul III. 

in. The Advertisement prefixed to the First 

iv. Another Advertisement, concerning the 
Emendations placed under the text in the New 
Edition of the year 1596. 


for the perpetual remembrance of the thing. 

*The care of the pastoral office, committed 
to us over the whole flock of Christ, and the 
love of the glory and praise of God, makes us 

[* Pastoralis officii cum, &c.] 


to embrace those things which help the salva 
tion and spiritual advance of souls ; and when 
persons ask us anything which may serve to 
cherish and nourish piety in Christ s faithful 
people, to admit their prayers to a favourable 
hearing. Since therefore, as our beloved son, 
the most noble Francis of Borgia, Duke of 
Gandia, has lately caused to be set forth to us, 
our beloved son IGNATIUS OF LOYOLA, Father- 
General of the Company of Jesus, established 
by us in our blessed City, and confirmed by us 
with the Apostolic authority, has composed 
certain Spiritual Instructions or Exercises, 
drawn from the holy Scriptures and the expe 
rience of the spiritual life, and reduced them to 
a method excellently adapted to move to piety 
the minds of the faithful ; and since the afore 
said Duke Francis has not merely learnt by 
report, brought from many places, but also 
ascertained by the clear proof of experience, as 
well at Barcelona, as at Valencia and at Gandia, 
that these Exercises are eminently useful and 
wholesome to Christ s faithful people, for spi 
ritual consolation and advance ; wherefore the 
same Duke Francis has caused an humble sup 
plication to be made to us, that, in order that 
the fruit of the aforesaid Spiritual Instructions 
and Exercises may be the more widely extended, 
and more of Christ s faithful people invited to 
use them with greater devotion, we would vouch 
safe of our Apostolic benignity to have them 
examined ; and if we found them worthy of ap 
probation and praise, to approve and praise 
them, and otherwise to arrange in a fitting 


manner concerning the premises ; We, there 
fore, having had the said Instructions and Ex 
ercises examined, and having learnt by the tes 
timony and account of our beloved son John, of 
the title of St. Clement, Cardinal Priest, Bishop 
of Burgos, and Inquisitor of heretical pravity ; 
and of our venerable brother Philip, Bishop of 
Salucise, and Vicar-General in Spirituals of our 
said City ; as also of our beloved son Giles Fos- 
carari, Master of the Sacred Palace ; to us 
thereupon made ; that, being replete with piety 
and holiness, they are and will be highly useful 
and wholesome for the edification and spiritual 
advance of the faithful ; and having also due 
regard, not without reason, to the abundant 
fruits which IGNATIUS and the aforesaid Com 
pany by him instituted cease not to yield in 
every part of the Church of God, and to the 
very great help which the before-mentioned 
Exercises have furnished thereto ; receiving 
favourably such supplications, do, by the afore 
said authority, by the tenor of these presents, 
of our certain knowledge, approve, praise, and 
with the defence of this present writing fortify, 
the aforesaid Instructions and Exercises, and 
all and singular their contents ; exhorting very 
much in the Lord all and each of Christ s faith 
ful people of both sexes, wheresoever situated, 
that with a devout good will they will use these 
so pious Instructions and Exercises, and by them 
be taught. Giving permission also, that the said 
Instructions and Spiritual Exercises may by any 
bookseller, by the aforesaid IGNATIUS chosen, 
be freely and lawfully printed. Provided, how- 



ever, that, after the first Edition, they shall not 
be printed, either by such or by any other per 
son whomsoever, without the consent of the 
same IGNATIUS, or his successors, under pain of 
excommunication, and of 500 ducats to be ap 
plied to works of piety. And charging never 
theless all and singular Ordinaries of places, 
persons in ecclesiastical dignity, Canons of ca 
thedral and metropolitan churches, and the 
Vicars spiritual, general, and official of the Or 
dinaries of the same, wheresoever situated ; 
that they, or two, or one of them, do, personally, 
or by some other or others, assist any member 
of the aforesaid Company, or other persons con- 
corned, in regard of the before-mentioned Spi 
ritual Exercises, taking order effectually, by our 
authority, that they may peaceably have and 
enjoy the said concession and approbation ; not 
permitting them by any persons, contrary to the 
tenor of these presents, in any manner what 
soever to be molested ; restraining all im- 
pugners and obstinate persons by ecclesiastical 
censures and punishments, and other ready 
remedies of law, postponing appeals ; invok 
ing also to this end (if need be) the help of 
the secular arm ; The decree of our pre 
decessor Pope Boniface VIII, of happy me 
mory, concerning one, and that of the General 
Council concerning two, Diets, (provided that 
no one be drawn by authority of these presents 
beyond three,) and any other constitutions and 
ordinances apostolical, and other contrary de 
terminations whatsoever, or any privilege to any 
persons in common or separately, by the same 


See, to the effect that they may not be inter 
dicted, suspended, or excommunicated, granted 
by Letters Apostolical which do not make full, 
and express, and word for word mention of such 
privilege, notwithstanding. And our will is, 
that the transcripts of the present letters, sub 
scribed by the hand of a Notary public, and 
sealed with the seal of any Prelate or person in 
ecclesiastical dignity, be regarded with entire 
confidence, and be acted upon, as well in judi 
cial proceedings, as out of them, in the same 
manner as if the original letters wero exhibited 
and shewn. 

Given at Rome, at St. Mark s, under the 
fisherman s ring, on the last day of July, in the 
year one thousand five hundred and forty-eight ; 
of our Pontificate the fourteenth. 



Of those to whom the censorship of the Exercises w.-: 


We have read all the contents arranged in this 
volume, and they have pleased us very much, and 
appeared eminently conducive to the salvation of 

We give permission, that this Work, worthy of 
all praise, and very profitable for the Christian 
profession, may be printed. 


[* With respect to the two Translations see the next 
following, with respect to the signatures the preceding 


Exercises so holy cannot but be of the greatest 
advantage to any one who applies himself to them. 
They are therefore to be embraced even with open 
arms. F. ^Eomius FOSCARARIUS, 

Magisler Sacri Palatii. 


We have read these Spiritual Exercises, and 
they please us very much ; and we judge them 
worthy to be received and made much of by all 
followers of the orthodox faith. 

We give permission, that this Work, worthy of 
all praise, and very profitable for the Christian 
profession, may be printed. 


Whereas the Christian religion cannot long sub 
sist without some Spiritual Exercises and Medi 
tations (for in meditation, saith the prophet, my 
soul burns up), I think none more suitable than these, 
which are undoubtedly the fruit of scriptural 
studies and long practice. 

Magister Sacri Palatii. 


To the devout reader of the same Company, 
health in the Lord. 

These Instructions and Spiritual Exercises, 
which, instructed less by books than by the 
unction of the Holy Ghost, by inward expe 
rience, and by the practice of the management 


of souls, our Father in Christ Master* IGNA 
TIUS OF LOYOLA, the Founder and Father- 
General of our Company, as has been said be 
fore, composed, have been translated from 
Spanish into Latin in two ways : one version 
rendered not merely sense for sense, but almost 
word for word ; the other (which appeared pre 
ferable) gave only sense for sense, but faithfully. 
When however these Exercises, in order to 
satisfy the devotion of some, and especially of 
the most illustrious Duke of Gandia, Francis of 
Borgia, who was desirous that they should be 
approved by the authority of the Apostolic See, 
they having also been already long (jampridem) 
approved everywhere by the spiritual advance of 
very many persons of every sort and condition 
(who by their means had gained or wonder 
fully increased the spirit of the Lord) ; when, 
I say, before the approbation of the Sove 
reign Pontiff, they were laid before the in 
tended censors for inspection, both transla 
tions were presented to them ; and although 
they were submitted to their entirely free cen 
sure, to add, to diminish, to change, as it should 
seem good in the Lord ; yet, without changing 
so much as a word, they approved both ver 
sions, as appears by their testimonies in the 
original manuscripts. As for the printing, I 

[* In the Latin, " Magister" (or, as in the Douay Edi 
tion of 1586, " J/."); i. e. either Magister Artium, " Mas 
ter of Arts", as at Oxford ; or simply " Mr.", now Mister, 
formerly Master or Maister (compare the French Maitre 
for Maistre), i. e. Magister as a general term of respect.] 


wish to inform thee, pious reader, that this 
work and labour has been spent, not on those 
by whom the Exercises will merely be read, but 
on those by whom they will be performed, or 
rather, be delivered to others. For since, in 
order to the attainment of abundant fruit, it is 
little to the purpose to have read, unless one 
has diligently exercised one s self in them, 
and has got a teacher who is versed in spiri 
tual things ; it is certain they have not been 
printed with the intention of being spread 
abroad among the people in general ; but, since 
it was too laborious, and accompanied with a 
great loss of time and expense, to write out by 
hand so many copies as were wanted for the 
uses of the Company itself, and in order that, 
avoiding variety and a multitude of errors 
(which are usually found in manuscripts), there 
might be a supply of copies of undoubted fide 
lity, this Work has been printed; but all the 
printed copies have been placed in the Com 
pany s power; for its own use, as we have said ; 
so that they can neither be sold, nor printed 
anywhere. Concerning these things, pious 
reader, if perchance they had not fully come to 
thy knowledge, being well acquainted with all 
the aforesaid particulars, I thought it my duty 
to inform thee. Farewell in the Lord. 
At Rome, August 8, 1548. 



The Committee of Fathers which was ap 
pointed in the Fifth General Congregation for 
the revision of the Directory of the Exercises, 
proposed more especially this, that before the 
Book of the Exercises were printed again, it 
ehould be diligently compared with the Spanish 
Autograph which is preserved at Rome, not for 
the purpose of substituting a new version, but 
in order that certain passages which in the 
Common Latin appeared somewhat obscure 
might be rendered conformable to it. Which 
when our Reverend Father had directed to be 
done, a diligent collation having been made, it 
was found that the Latin Edition differed in 
few things from the Autograph. Those there 
fore which appeared to be of little moment 
having been passed by, it was thought good 
that those places only should be noted in which 
the sense was judged somewhat obscure, or at 
least could be made clearer by this new render 
ing. And when all these had been diligently 
examined by our holy Father with the Fathers 
who assisted him ; in order that, on account of 
the reverence due to the Common Edition, it 
might not appear that it was being changed, it 
seemed better that all the places which were 
noted should be placed at the end of the Exer- 

[* See the date at the end.] 


cises, and be marked with certain signs of re 
ference (stellulis) which might answer to the 
places in which the alterations were made, in 
order that any one might be able the more 
easily to find the things which in this last Edi 
tion have been made conformable (to the Auto 
graph). And this labour, as we hope, will bring 
an increase of light to those who handle the Ex 
ercises, and be agreeable to all the Members of 
our Society, with whom the use of the Exercises 
ought to be most frequent. 

At Rome, June 25, 1596. 

By order of our Reverend Father-General, 

JAMES DOMINIC, Secretary. 

[Concerning these alterations see also the Translator s 




^>r, Jgnatiutf of Hopola. 

THE PKATER, Anima Christi. 

SOUL of Christ, sanctify me. 

Body of Christ, save me. 

Blood of Christ, inebriate me. 

Water of the side of Christ, wash me. 

Passion of Christ, strengthen me. 

good Jesu, hear me : 

Within Thy wounds hide me : 

Permit me not to be separated from Thee 

From the malignant enemy defend me : 

In the hour of my death call me, 

And bid me come to Thee, 

That with Thy Saints I may praise Thee 

For ever and ever. Amen. 

Cfje Spiritual 




Affording some understanding with respect to the Spi 
ritual Exercises which follow ; for the help as well of 
him who is to give, as of him who is to receive them. 

THE first annotation is, that by the name 
itself of Spiritual Exercises is understood 
any method of examining one s own con 
science ; also of meditating, contem 
plating, praying mentally and vocally, and, 
finally, of performing any other spiritual 
operations, as will be said hereafter. For 
as, to walk, to travel, and to run, are bodily 
exercises ; so also, to prepare and dispose 
the soul to remove all ill-ordered affec 
tions, and after their removal to seek and 
find the will of God with respect to the 
ordering of one s own life, and the salva 
tion of one s soul, are called Spiritual Exer 

The second is, that he who delivers to an 
other the order and method of meditating 


Spiritual (j;ernde0 of 

or contemplating, should set forth faith 
fully the history of the meditation or con 
templation, going briefly through the chief 
points only, and adding merely a very 
brief exposition ; in order that he who is 
about to meditate, having taken first the 
foundation of the historical truth, may 
afterwards go over the ground and reason 
by himself. For the effect of this will be, 
that when he finds anything which may 
furnish something more of elucidation or 
of apprehension of the history, (whether 
this be effected by his own reasoning, or 
by divine illumination of the mind,) he 
will experience a more delightful taste 
and more abundant fruit, than if the 
matter itself had been more diffusely set 
forth and drawn out by another. For it 
is not the abundance of the knowledge, 
but the interior feeling and taste of the 
things, which is accustomed to satisfy the 
desire of the soul. 

The third is, that, whereas in all the fol 
lowing Spiritual Exercises we use acts of 
the intellect when we reason, but of the 
will when we are affected, we must take 
notice that in the operation which belongs 
chiefly to the will, while we converse 
vocally or mentally with the Lord God or 


His Saints, a greater reverence is required 
of us, than while by the use of the intellect 
we are employed rather in understanding. 
The fourth is, that, although to the fol 
lowing Exercises are assigned four weeks, 
answering to as many portions of the Ex 
ercises, each to each, viz., that in the nrst 
week the consideration may be concerning 
sins ; in the second, concerning the life of 
our Lord Jesus Christ up to his entrance 
into Jerusalem on Palm Sunday; in the 
third, concerning His Passion ; in the 
fourth, concerning His Resurrection and 
Ascension, adding the three methods of 
prayer ; yet these weeks are not to be so 
understood, as if it were necessary that 
each should contain seven or eight days. 
For since it happens that some are slower, 
others more ready, in attaining what they 
seek, (for instance in the first week contri 
tion, grief, and tears for their sins,) and 
that some are more or less agitated and 
tried by various spirits ; it is sometimes 
expedient that any week should be cut 
down * or extended, according to the 
nature of the subject matter. The whole 
time, however, of the Exercises is accus- 

* In the fourth annotation, in the end, where we have 
cut down, the sense will be clearer if we read contracted. 

Spiritual ^errtfieai of 

turned to be concluded in the space of 
thirty days, or thereabouts. 

The fifth is, that he who receives the 
Exercises is wonderfully assisted, if, coming 
to them with a great and liberal mind, he 
offers his whole desire and choice to his 
Creator, that, concerning himself and all 
that belongs to him, He may appoint that 
in which he may be able best to serve Him, 
according to His own good pleasure. 

The sixth is, that he who gives the 
Exercises, if he perceives that the one who 
receives them undergoes no spiritual com 
motions of the mind, such as are consola 
tions or sadnesses, nor any agitations of 
different spirits, ought carefully to inquire 
whether he performs the Exercises them 
selves at the prescribed times, and in what 
way ; also, whether he observes diligently 
all the Additions ; and let an account be 
asked of each thing. Now, concerning Con 
solations and Desolations we shall speak 
further on, in the First Rules about the 
discerning of spirits; concerning the Ad 
ditions, in the end of the First Week. 

The seventh is, that he who has the 
care of the exercising of another, if he sees 
him affected by desolation or temptation, 
ought to take care not to shew himself 
hard or austere to him, but rather to be mild 


and gentle, confirming his mind to act 
vigorously for the future, and having laid 
open the wiles of our enemy, to study to 
dispose him for consolation, as for a thing 
shortly to follow. 

The eighth is, that concerning the con 
solations and desolations of him who is re 
ceiving the exercises, and concerning the 
wiles of the enemy, the Rules which are 
given in the two first weeks*, concern 
ing the distinguishing of various spirits, 
will be able to render service. 

The ninth is, that when a person is to 
be exercised who is inexperienced in spi 
ritual things, so that it may happen that 
in the first week he may be troubled with 
some gross and open temptations ; when 
he has shewn already certain impediments 
to following out the service of God (such 
as are trouble, anxiety, shame, fear, on 
account of worldly honour), then he who 
is instructing him in the exercises must 
dispense with the Rules which belong to 
the second week, concerning the distin 
guishing of spirits, and use those only 
which are given in the first. For as much 
advantage as the other will gain from 

* In the eighth annotation, where it is said in the 
two first weeks, read -for the two first weeks. 

Spiritual demises of 

these latter, so much damage will he re 
ceive from the former, on account of the 
subtilty and sublimity of the matter, 
which is above his reach. 

The tenth is, that, if he who is being 
exercised is tossed by temptations having 
on their face the appearance of good, he 
must then be fortified by the aforesaid 
rules of the second week. For the enemy of 
the human race attacks by the appearance of 
good those, for the most part, who have 
already walked in the way of life which 
is called the illuminative, answering to the 
exercises of the second week, rather than 
in the other which is commonly called the 
/n/r<rftfiue, *and is comprehended by the 
exercises of the first week. 

The eleventh is, that for him who is 
exercising himself in the first week, it is 
expedient to be ignorant what he is to do 
in the next ; and to labour strenuously to 
obtain what he then seeks, as if he were 
about to find no good afterwards. 

The twelfth is, that he who is being ex 
ercised must be admonished, that as on 
each daily exercise, of the five to be 
described hereafter, the space of one hour 

* In the tenth annotation, in the end, where we have 
and is comprehended by, read and answers to. 

tttfif lopoFa* 

ought to be spent ; he should always take 
care to find rest to his mind in this, that 
he is conscious that he has employed more 
rather than less time. For it is a . fre 
quent thing with the devil to labour that 
the space of time appointed for medi 
tation or prayer may be shortened. 

The thirteenth is, that, whereas it is an 
easy and light thing, when consolation 
abounds, to go through with the hour; most 
difficult on the contrary when desolation 
happens ; for this reason, against tempta 
tion and desolation one must always con 
tend by prolonging the exercise beyond the 
prescribed hour, for the sake of over 
coming. For so we learn not only to re 
sist the adversary, but also to vanquish 

The fourteenth is, that, if he who is 
engaged in the exercises is seen to be 
borne along with much consolation and 
great fervour, care must be taken that he 
does not bind himself by any promise 
or vow inconsiderately and precipitately 
made; and this must be so much the more 
diligently prevented, in proportion as he 
is seen to be of a more unstable disposi 
tion. Foralthough one person may rightly 
move another to enter into Religion, in 

Spiritual demises of 

which the vows of obedience, chastity, 
and poverty must be made; although, too, 
a work done by vow is more meritorious 
than one done without a vow, yet the 
greatest regard must be had to the pecu 
liar condition of the persons. Also it 
must be attentively considered, what ad 
vantage [help] or disadvantage [ nm ~ 
drance] may occur for the performance 
of what any one is about to promise. 

The fifteenth is, that he who gives the 
exercises ought not to urge the other to 
poverty and the promise thereof more 
than to the opposite; nor to this rather 
than to that plan of life: for although 
out of the exercises it is lawful, and to be 
accounted meritorious, to persuade all 
those to embrace celibacy, religious life, 
and any other evangelic perfection, who 
from the consideration of their persons and 
conditions will probably be fit subjects ; yet 
it is far more suitable and better, in the 
exercises themselves, not to attempt it, but 
rather to seek the will of God, and wait until 
our Creator and Lord Himself communi 
cate Himself to the soul devoted to Him, 
and embracing it, dispose it to the love, 
praise, and service of Himself, as He knows 
to be most fitting. Wherefore, he who 


dictates the exercises must stand in a cer 
tain equilibrium, arid, the instrument 
apart, leave the Creator Himself to trans 
act the matter with the creature, and the 
creature with the Creator. 

The sixteenth is, that, in order that our 
Creator and Lord Himself may work the 
more certainly in His creature, if the soul 
happen to be affected and inclined to any 
thing less right, one must struggle to the 
utmost and with one s whole powers to the 
contrary : as, for instance, if a man aspire 
to the getting of an office or benefice for 
the sake, not of the glory of God, or of the 
common salvation of souls, but only of 
his own advantage arid temporal affairs, 
then the affection ought to be impelled to 
the opposite by assiduous prayers and 
other pious exercises in which the oppo 
site is asked of God; that is to say, that 
he offer to God this mind, namely, that he 
seeks no longer such office or benefice, or 
anything else, unless God shall have so 
changed his former affection, as that he 
may no longer desire it, or possess it, for 
any other reason than the worship and 
honour of God. 

The seventeenth* is very useful, namely, 

* The seventeenth annotation should stand thus : "The 

10 fZT&e Spiritual ^rrnerc of 

that he who gives the exercises, although 
not wishing to inquire into and know the 
private thoughts and sins of the other, yet, 
being faithfully informed concerning the 
thoughts infused by various spirits, and 
which draw to greater or less good, should 
prescribe him some spiritual exercises, 
suited to the present necessity of the soul. 
The eighteenth is, that, according to the 
habit of him who is being exercised, ac 
cording (for instance) to his age, learn 
ing, or genius, the exercises ought to be 
adapted ; lest on one untutored, or weak, 
or delicate, those things be laid, which he 
cannot bear without inconvenience, much 
less undertake to his profit. In like man 
ner, according as it is in the mind of 
each to dispose himself, that must be im 
parted to him which may most help him. 
Therefore, to him who desires only to be 
instructed and brought forward to some 
step in which his mind may be at rest, 

seventeenth, It is very useful that he who gives the ex 
ercises, although not intending to inquire into and know 
the private thoughts and sins of the other, should yet be 
faithfully informed concerning the various agitations and 
thoughts which various spirits infuse. For, having per 
ceived his greater or less advancement, he is able to 
prescribe him some spiritual exercises suited to the present 
necessitv of the soul. 

loola* 11 

may be given first the particular examina 
tion which is found below, then the general 
one, and at the same time the method of 
praying in the morning during half-an- 
hour, from the consideration of the com 
mands of God, and of mortal sins; con 
cerning which in its place below. He 
must be advised also to confess his sins 
every eighth day; and every fifteen days, 
or rather every eight, if his affection 
urge him, to receive the Sacrament of the 
Eucharist. This plan of exercise be 
longs properly to the more uninstructed 
or illiterate, to whom must also be ex 
pounded the several precepts of God and 
the Church; the mortal sins, with the 
five senses, and the works of mercy. Also 
if he who gives the exercises perceives 
the other to be of a weak nature and of 
little capacity, whence no great result 
and fruit can be hoped, it will be better 
to prescribe him some of the said lighter 
exercises up to the confession of sins ; 
afterwards to give him some examinations 
of conscience, and a plan of more fre 
quent confession, in order that by these 
means he may be able to preserve the pro 
ficiency or gain, which his soul has already 
obtained. But he will not go on to rules 

12 Cbe Spiritual Cjcmisce of 

concerning elections, or any other ex 
ercises than those of the first week; espe 
cially when there are present others who 
may be exercised with more fruit, and the 
shortness of time does not admit of his 
doing everything for all. 

The nineteenth is, that to a man occu 
pied with public or other useful business, 
whether he be furnished with genius or 
with learning, having an hour and a-half 
each day for undertaking some exercises, 
must be expounded first for what end man 
was created: then for half-an-hour the 
particular examination, afterwards the ge 
neral one, with the mode of confessing 
rightly, and of receiving the holy Sacra 
ment, may be given him ; with the direction 
also, that in the morning, during three days, 
he meditate one hour concerning the first, 
second, and third sin, as is taught below. 
Afterwards for three more days, during 
the same hour, concerning the inquest of 
sins; for as many more, concerning the 
Punishments which answer to sins. 

He must also have dictated to him, within 
the whole time of the above three medi 
tations, those ten Additions which are 
found in the end of the first week. 

The same plan of meditation will have to 

j?t. Jgnatitta Lopola. 13 

be observed with regard to the mysteries of 
our Lord Jesus Christ which is fully ex 
plained below in the Exercises themselves. 
The twentieth is, that to hirn who is 
more free from business, and desires to gain 
the greatest possible spiritual fruit, all the 
exercises are to be given in the same 
order in which they proceed (and indeed 
it is expedient to write down the heads of 
the matters, lest they escape the memory) ; 
in which, according to the more usual 
success, he will make the greater pro 
gress in the spiritual life, in proportion 
as he withdraws himself the more from all 
his friends and acquaintance, arid from all 
solicitude about human affairs ; as if he mi 
grate from his former habitation into some 
more secret house or cell, whence he may 
freely and safely go out to hear the morn 
ing sacrifice of the Mass*, or the office 
of Vespers, when he pleases, without the 
interruption of any acquaintance. From 
which local retreat, indeed, among many 
other advantages, these three especially 
arise : the first, that by the exclusion of 
his friends and acquaintance, and of affairs 

* [Ad matutinum sacrum Missce. In some editions (not 
in that printed at Douay in 1586) we have, contrary to the 
of the original, ad matutinum, sacrum MissceJ] 


14 Cfce Spiritual dfrcrdficc of 

less well ordered for the service of God, he 
attains before God no small merit: the 
second, that, by means of a retreat of this 
kind, his intellect being less drawn in 
different directions than before, and his 
whole thought being collected and reduced 
to one thing, namely, to obeying God his 
Creator, and consulting the salvation of 
his soul, he uses his natural powers in a 
freer and more unencumbered way in 
seeking what he so much desires : the 
third, that by how much the more the 
soul finds herself separate and solitary, 
by so much the fitter she renders herself 
for seeking and attaining her Creator and 
Lord ; to Whom, moreover, by how much 
the nearer she approaches, by so much 
the better she is disposed for the reception 
of the gifts of the Divine goodness. 

STffnattug Hopola. 15 



By which a man is directed in order that he may be able 

to conquer himself ; and, with a determination free 

from hurtful affections, fix the plan of his life. 

In the first place, in. order that by 
exercises of this kind, as well he who 
gives as he who receives them may be 
profited, it must be presupposed that 
every pious Christian ought with a more 
ready mind to put a good sense upon an 
obscure opinion or proposition of another 
than to condemn it; but if he can in no 
way defend it, let him inquire the meaning 
of the speaker, and if he think or mean 
wrongly, correct him kindly ; if this suffice 
not, try all suitable means by which 
he may render him sound in meaning and 
safe from error. 

16 Cfte Spiritual Cfrmifiicfi of 


Man was created for this end, that he 
might praise and reverence the Lord his 
God, and, serving Him, at length be saved. 
But the other things which are placed on 
the earth were created for man s sake, that 
they might assist him in pursuing the end 
of his creation : whence it follows, that 
they are to be used or abstained from in 
proportion as they profit or hinder him in 
pursuing that end. Wherefore we ought 
to be indifferent towards all created things 
(*in so far as they are subject to the 
liberty of our will, and not prohibited), 
so that (to the best of our power) we seek 
not health more than sickness, nor prefer 
riches to poverty, honour to contempt, a 
long life to a short one. But it is fitting, 
out of all, to choose and desire those 
things only which lead to the end.f 

* In the Foundation, where it is said in so far as they 
are subject to the liberty of our will, it would be said more 
clearly from the autograph in so far as it is left to the 
liberty of our will. 

t At the end of the Foundation, where we have 
which lead to the end, it should be read which lead us to 
the end for the sake of which we were created. 

iti0 lopola. 17 


Embracing three times, fitted for the disposing of one s 
self, and a two-fold sifting. 

The first time is that of the morning ; in 
which a man ought, as soon as he rises 
from sleep, to propose the diligent guard 
ing of himself concerning some particular 
sin or fault, from which he desires to 
amend himself. 

The second is, that of the afternoon ; in 
which he must ask of God the grace to be 
able to remember how often he has fallen 
into that particular sin or fault, and 
beware of it for the future : then let him 
perform the first sifting, asking account 
of his soul concerning the sin or fault 
already spoken of, and, running through 
the several past parts of the day, from the 
hour in which he rose down to the pre 
sent, how many times he has committed 
it, and mark so many points in the first 
line of the figure represented below. 
Which being finished, let him propose again 
through the remaining space of the day to 
restrain himself with greater diligence. 

The third time will be that of the even 
ing; in which, after the hour of supper, 
the second sifting will have to be made, 


18 (T()e Spiritual 6r.mtfitfi of 

by running through in like manner the 
several hours which have elapsed from the 
former to the present examination ; and in 
the same way remembering and enumer 
ating the times he has been in fault, he 
will mark the same number of points in 
the second line of a figure like the one 
belosv, prepared for the purpose. 

Four Useful Additions 
For the easier and quicker extirpation of any sin or fault, 

The first is, that as often as one has 
been guilty of that kind of sin or fault, 
putting his hand to his breast, he grieve 
for his fall, which may be done, even when 
others are present, without their per 
ceiving it. 

The second is, that at night, having 
counted and compared together the points 
of the lines, of which the upper is assigned 
to the first, the lower to the second ex 
amination, he observe whether from the 
former to the latter any amendment have 

The third is, that he compare together 
the examinations of the second and the 
preceding day, considering whether any 
amendment has taken place in him. 

STffnatttta lopola. 19 

The fourth, that, comparing together in 
like manner the examinations of two 
weeks, he take account of the amendment 
made or omitted. 

Also it must be noted, that, of the fol 
lowing figures, the first, which is loii^vr 
than the rest, is assigned to the first day, 
say the Sunday; the second, which is a 
little shorter, to the Monday ; and so in 
succession, it being reasonable that the 
number of faults should decrease daily. 


Most useful for the cleansing of the soul, and the 
confession of sins. 

It is presupposed that there happen to a 
man three kinds of thoughts; the first 
arising from his own proper motion, but 
the other two coming from without, 

20 C&e Spiritual ^crctfirs of 

namely, from the suggestion of a good or 
evil spirit. 

Concerning Thought. 

In two ways is merit drawn from evil 
thought in the matter of mortal sin, con 
cerning which kind of thought we here 

By the first, when there is suggested a 
thought concerning committing a mortal 
crime, but by resisting immediately it is 

By the second, when an evil suggestion 
of this kind having been repelled once and 
again, and returning every now and then, 
a man continually resists, until it be quite 
beaten out ; which kind of victory de 
servedly excels the other. 

But a man sins lightly when upon the 
thought of mortal sin which has arisen he 
dwells some little, as it were listening, or 
when he is affected passingly by any plea 
sure of sense, or shows himself negligent 
in repelling it. 

But mortal sin is received by thought 
in two ways. 

First, when to the thought of sin con 
sent is in any way given. 

Secondly, when that sin is completed in 

loola. 21 

deed : and this is more grievous than the 
other, for three reasons, namely; on ac 
count of the greater length of time ; on 
account of the more intense action ; and 
on account of the greater number scan 
dalized or injured. 

Concerning Words. 

By word also is God in many ways 
offended; as in blasphemy, in swearing. 
For we must not swear, either by the 
Creator or by any creatures, unless with 
the concurrence of these three things 
truth, necessity, and reverence. Moreover 
necessity is to be understood, not of the 
affirmation of whatever is true, but of 
that only which is of importance concern 
ing some spiritual, corporal, or at least 
temporal advantage. By reverence we 
mean, when he who mentions the name of 
God uses consideration, that to God the 
Creator and Lord due honour may be 

It must be understood, however, that 
although an oath by the Creator, taken 
rashly or vainly, is a more grievous sin 
than one by the creature, it is nevertheless 
more difficult to swear lawfully, observing 
the due circumstances which we have men - 
tioned, by the latter than by the former. 

22 (E&c Spiritual Cjcmtscfi of 

First, because in making mention of the 
creature in an oath, we are not so much 
stirred up or rendered attentive to swear 
from truth and necessity, as when we 
name the Creator of all things. 

Secondly, because we are far less forci 
bly moved to give God honour with rever 
ence, by the mention of the creature, than 
by that of God the Creator Himself. Where 
fore to swear by creatures is allowed 
rather to the perfect, than to those of the 
duller or the more ordinary sort; since 
the perfect, by the continual use of con 
templation and by the illumination of the 
understanding, consider more closely, and 
discover that God exists as to His essence, 
presence, and power in every creature; 
whence they are better prepared than 
others who are not yet advanced to that 
point of perfection, to give Him due rever 
ence in an oath. 

Thirdly, because, if the creatures were 
too frequently named for the confirmation 
of an oath, there would be danger of idola 
try ; a thing more to be feared for the im 
perfect than for the perfect. 

We must avoid, moreover, among the 
other sins of speech, idle words; such as 
all those must be understood to be, which 

ittfi JLopola* 23 

profit neither the speaker nor any other, 
nor are even uttered with the intention of 
doing service. But, on the other hand, 
no such words are by any means to be 
accounted idle, as concern the good of 
one s own or another s soul, body, or even 
temporal advantage, or at least are 
directed by the speaker s mind to some 
thing of the kind, even though a man 
speak concerning matters foreign to his 
own plan of life, as if a religious speak 
concerning wars or trading. But from 
speech ordered to a good end there arises 
merit ; while that which is directed to a 
bad one, or uttered idly, begets sin. 

Sins of the mouth are also, lying, false 
testimonies, detraction. For we must not 
be guilty of detraction- or finding fault 
against any one. For by revealing any 
one s mortal sin, which is not public, with 
a bad intention, or grievous damage of 
another s good fame, a mortal sin is also 
committed; by revealing a venial one, only 
a venial one is committed. Moreover, as 
often as we make known another s 
fault or defect, we show at the same time 
our own fault and defect. But where the 
intention is right, it will be lawful to 
speak concerning one s neighbour s fault 
in two ways. 

Cf)e Spiritual e^rctficg of 

First, when it is public, as prostitution, 
or a thing which has been condemned 
judicially, or is pernicious, as on account 
of public error corrupting the minds of 
those with whom we live. 

Secondly, when the secret crime of any 
one is told to another by whose assistance 
he may be delivered from his sin, provided 
there appear some probable reason or con 
jecture that such will be the case. 

Among the sins of the mouth might be 
set down also derisions, insults, and other 
things of that kind, which he who gives 
the exercises will be able to pursue as he 
shall judge requisite. 

Concerning Deeds. 

Placing before one s eyes the ten com 
mandments of God, with the precepts of 
the Church, and the directions of those in 
authority, or superiors, we must account 
that whatever is done contrary to any of 
these is a sin; lighter, however, or more 
grievous, according to the different ways 
of sinning, and the different habits of those 
who sin. Now, we consider as belonging 
to the directions of Superiors the Bulls or 
Indults of the Popes, which are accustom 
ed to be granted and promulgated for the 

. Sfftwtfog Lopola. 25 

expulsion of unbelievers or the peace of 
Christians ; by which Christ s faithful peo 
ple are invited to confession of sins and 
the reception of the holy Eucharist. For 
indeed he sins not lightly, whoever dares 
to despise and transgress such pious ex 
hortations and appointments of the Rulers 
of the Church. 

A Method of General Examination, comprehending 
Five Portions or Points. 

The first point is, that we must thank 
the Lord our God for the benefits we 
have received. 

The second, that we ought to intreat 
grace for the knowledge and expulsion of 
our sins. 

The third, to ask account of our soul 
concerning the sins committed during the 
present day, searching through the several 
hours from the time when we rose. And 
first, indeed, concerning thought; then 
concerning speech and deed; in the same 
order in which it was laid down in the 
particular examination. 

The fourth, to ask pardon concerning 
our faults. 

The fifth, to propose amendment with 
the grace of God ; and after all the above 
to say the Lord s prayer. Pater noster. 

26 (Lf)c Spiritual (Sjrerciaefi of 


From a general confession voluntarily 
made, among many other advantages are 
gained these three. 

The first, that, although he who con 
fesses at least once every year is by no 
means obliged to make a general confes 
sion of this kind, yet the person himself 
who makes ifc gains much more advantage 
and merit, on account namely of the sor 
row for his sins, and for the wickedness of 
liis past life, which he thus feels more 

The second, that having seen, by means 
of the spiritual exercises, much more 
clearly than before, the nature and wick 
edness of sin, he will gain so much the 
greater advantage and merit. 

The third, that it is reasonable to ex 
pect that he who has thus rightly con 
fessed, and is thus rightly disposed, will be 
much better prepared for the reception 
of the Eucharist, which conduces in the 
highest degree both to the expulsion of 
sin, and to the preservation and increase 
of grace received. 

And this general confession will be 
best placed after the exercises of the first 



Of meditating according to the three powers of the mind 
concerning sin of three kinds ; containing a preparatory 
prayer, two preludes, and three leading points, with 
one colloquy. 

The preparatory prayer is that whereby 
we ask grace of the Lord, that all our 
powers and operations may tend sincerely 
to His glory and worship. 

The first prelude is a certain way of con 
structing the place [or scene] ; for which 
it must be noted, that in every meditation 
or contemplation about a bodily thing, as 
for example about Christ, we must form, 
according to a certain imaginary vision, 
a bodily place representing what we con 
template; as the temple, or a mountain, 
in which we may find Christ Jesus, or the 
Virgin Mary, and the other things which 
concern the subject of our contemplation. 

But if the subject of meditation be an 
incorporeal thing, as is the consideration 
of sins now offered, the construction of 
the place may be such as if by imagina 
tion we see our soul in this corruptible 
body, as confined in a prison ; and man 

28 (Efjc Spiritual demises nf 

himself, in this vale of misery, an exile 
among brute animals. 

The second prelude will be to ask of the 
Lord the thing I earnestly desire, accord 
ing to the subject of the proposed contem 
plation : for example, if I am to meditate 
concerning the Resurrection of Christ, I 
must ask for joy wherewith I may rejoice 
together with Christ rejoicing : but if con 
cerning the Passion, let me ask tears, pains, 
and anguish, in order that I may suffer 
together with Christ suffering. In the 
present meditation, therefore, I ought to 
ask for my own shame and confusion, re 
flecting how many human beings have been 
damned on account of even one single 
mortal sin, and that I have so often de 
served damnation by sinning. 

It must be noted further, that every 
meditation or contemplation must be pre 
ceded by both the preparatory prayer 
arid the two preludes ; but the prayer is 
always made in the same manner, whereas 
the preludes are different according to the 
difference of the subjects. 

The first point will be to exercise my 
memory concerning the first sin of all, 
which was that committed by the Angels, 
applying immediately the reasoning power 

tttfi lopola, 29 

of the understanding, and the motion of 
the will, stirring me up to consider and 
understand those things by which 1 may 
be utterly ashamed and confounded, com 
paring the single sin of the Angels with 
so many of mine : whence I may gather, 
since they, for a single crime, were given 
over to hell, how often I myself have 
deserved the same punishment. We say 
therefore, that one must draw into the me 
mory, how the Angels having been created 
in the beginning in the state of grace, but 
not being willing by the liberty of the 
will (which was necessary for the consum 
mation of blessedness) to give their Creator 
reverence and obedience, but on the con 
trary growing proud against Him, were 
turned from grace to wickedness, and from 
Heaven precipitated to Hell. Accordingly 
we must examine, by the office of the un 
derstanding, more accurately concerning 
these things, and at the same time strive 
more earnestly to excite the affections of 
the will. 

The second point is, to exercise the 
same three powers concerning the sin of 
our first Parents, which we shall call the 
second, going over by the memory, how 
long a penance they underwent on ac- 

30 CLljc Spiritual demises of 

count of it ; how great a corruption has 
invaded the human race; how many thou 
sands of human beings have been thrust 
down to hell. We must remember, that 
is to say, how Adam, made of the clay 
of the earth in the plain of Damascus, and 
placed in a terrestrial Paradise, and Eve, 
formed from one of his ribs, when they 
had been forbidden to eat of the fruit of 
the tree of the knowledge of good and 
evil, and had eaten notwithstanding ; after 
their sin were immediately cast out of 
Paradise ; and being clothed in skins, and 
deprived of their original righteousness, 
dragged out the remainder of their life 
in penance, in the greatest labours and 
miseries. Concerning these things also we 
must use the reasoning of the intellect 
and the affections of the will, as before. 

The third is, that we exercise ourselves 
in like manner concerning any particular 
mortal sin (we shall call this the third 
sin, in order to distinguish it from the two 
above mentioned), considering that by 
such a sin, even but once committed, 
many perhaps have been thrust down to 
hell ; and that besides, an almost count 
less number, for sins fewer and lighter 
than mine, are perhaps being tormented 


with everlasting punishments. Whence it 
must be turned over in the memory, how 
great is the grievousriess and wickedness 
of sin, which offends God the Creator and 
Lord of all. We must reason, also, that 
everlasting punishment is justly inflicted 
on sin, as being committed against the 
infinite goodness of God. Lastly, the 
affections are to be stirred up, as has 
already been said. 

The colloquy will be made by imagining 
Jesus Christ to be present before me, fixed 
on the cross. Let me, therefore, inquire 
with myself the reason why He, the 
infinite Creator, vouchsafed to become 
a creature, and from eternal life to corne 
to temporary death because of my sins. 
Let me also call myself to account, in 
quiring what worthy of mention I have 
hitherto done for Christ, what I am doing 
now," or ought to do. And, looking upon 
Him thus affixed to the cross, let me give 
utterance to such things as my mind arid 
affection shall suggest. 

Moreover, it is the property of the col 
loquy to be made similarly to the language 
of a friend to a friend, or of a servant to 
his Lord; now by asking some favour, 
now by accusing myself of some fault; 

Cjje Spiritual (frmwefi of 

sometimes by communicating my own 
affairs of any kind, and asking counsel or 
help concerning them. Last of all, let 
the Pater noster be said. 


Is a meditation concerning sins ; comprehending, after 

the preparatory prayer and two preludes, five 

articles or points, with a colloquy at the end. 

The preparatory prayer is the same as 

The first prelude requires the same 
construction of the place as in the pre 
ceding meditation. 

And the latter will be made by asking 
what we here seek ; that is to say, in 
tense grief concerning sins, with abundant 

Let the first point be, a certain inquest 
by which the sins of one s whole life are 
recalled into the memory, the person going 
through, step by step, and examining the 
several years and spaces of time. In which 
thing we are assisted by a threefold sum 
ming up, by considering, that is to say, 
the places where we have lived, the various 
modes of intercourse we have had with 
others, and the different kinds of offices or 
occupations in which we have been en 
gaged. % 

t. Jcptattus lopola. 33 

The second is, to weigh the sins them 
selves, how great is the foulness and 
wickedness of each on account of its own 
nature, even though it had not been pro 

The third is, to consider myself, who or 
of what kind I am, adding comparisons 
which may bring me to a greater contempt 
of myself; as if I reflect how little I. 
am when compared with all men ; then 
what the whole multitude of mortals is, 
as compared with the Angels and all the 
Blessed : after these things I must con 
sider what, in fact, all creation is in compa 
rison with God the Creator Himself : 
what, now, can I, one mere human being, 
be? Lastly, let me look at the corruption 
of my whole self, the wickedness of rny 
soul, and the pollution of my body ; and 
account myself to be a kind of ulcer or 
boil, from Avhich so great and foul a flood 
of sins, so great a pestilence of vices, has 
flowed down. 

The fourth is, to consider what God is, 
Whom I have thus offended, collecting 
the perfections which are God s peculiar 
attributes and comparing them with my 
opposite vices and defects; comparing, 
that is to say, His supreme power, wisdom, 


34 Clje Spiritual 6j:ercu$efi of 

goodness, and justice, with my extreme 
weakness, ignorance, wickedness, and ini 

The fifth, to break forth into excla 
mation, from a vehement commotion of 
the feelings, admiring greatly how all 
creatures (going over them severally) 
have borne with me so long, and even 
to this time preserved me alive ; how the 
angels, bearing the sword of the divine 
justice, have patiently borne with me, 
guarded me, and even assisted me with 
their prayers; how the saints have inter 
ceded for me; how the sky, the sun, the 
moon, and the other heavenly bodies, the 
elements, and all kinds of animals and 
productions of the earth, in place of the 
vengeance due, have served me ; how, 
lastly, the earth has not opened and 
swallowed me up, unbarring a thousand 
hells, in which I might suffer everlasting 

Lastly, this meditation must be con 
cluded by a colloquy, in which I extol the 
infinite mercy of God, giving thanks to 
the best of my power, that He has pre 
served my life up to this day; whence 
proposing for the future the amendment 
of myself, I shall say once Pater noster. 

Lopola. 35 


Will be only a repetition of the first and second, together 
with three colloquies. 

After the preparatory prayer and two 
preludes, must be repeated the preceding 
two exercises, marking the points or places 
in which we felt a greater consolation, de 
solation, or spiritual affection of any other 
kind; and upon these we must remain 
longer and more diligently. Then, spi 
ritual movement occurring to us, we shall 
come to the three colloquies which folio \v. 

The first colloquy is made to our Lady, 
the Mother of Christ, by asking her inter 
cession with her Son, and the gaining of 
grace necessary to us for three things: 
first, that we may feel the inward know 
ledge and detestation of our sins; se 
condly, that, acknowledging and abhorring 
the perverse order of our actions, we may 
correct it, and rightly order ourselves ac 
cording to God; thirdly, that, perceiving 
and condemning the wickedness of the 
world, we may recover ourselves from 
worldly and vain things. These things 
having been finished, let A ve Maria be 
said once. 

Let the second colloquy be made in a 
like manner to Christ our Lord and Me- 

36 C5e ^ptritunl (Ermtsefi of 

diator, that He would obtain for us those 
same things from the Eternal Father. 
At the end will be added the prayer which 
begins, Anima Christi. 

The third is to be made, going on in the 
same order, to God the Father, that He 
would grant us this three-fold grace ; and 
at the end Pater noster is to be said once. 


Consists of the repetition of the third. 

>uch a repetition is laid down, as a kind 
of rumination on those things on which 
I meditated in the former exercises ; that, 
by calling them to mind in continued suc 
cession, the understanding may the more 
easily go over the ground without turning 
aside. The same three colloquies will 
have also to be added. 


Is a contemplation concerning hell ; and contains, after 

the preparatory prayer and two preludes, five points, 

and one colloquy. 

The preparatory prayer does not differ 
from that above. The first prelude is 
here the forming of the place ; which is 


to set before the eyes of the imagination 
the length, breadth, and depth of hell. 

The second consists in asking for an inti 
mate perception of the punishments which 
the damned undergo ; that, if at any time 
I should be forgetful of the love of God, 
at least the fear of punishment may re 
strain me from sins. 

The first point is, to see by the imagi 
nation the vast fires of hell, and the souls 
inclosed in certain fiery bodies, as it were 
in dungeons.* 

The second, to hear in imagination the 
lamentations, the howlings, the excla 
mations, and the blasphemies against 
Christ and His saints, thence breaking 

The third, to perceive by the smell also 
of the imagination, the smoke, the brim 
stone, and the stench of a kind of sink or 
filth, and of putrefaction. 

The fourth, to taste in like manner those 
most bitter things, as the tears, the rot 
tenness, and the worm of conscience. 

The fifth, to touch in a manner those 

* In the first point and the souls inclosed in certain 
fiery bodies, as it were in dungeons ; it should be said 
and the souls inclosed as it were in certain fiery bodies, as 

C&c ^ptrttttal <EftvtM& of 

iires by the touch of which the souls 
themselves are burnt. 

Meanwhile, making a colloquy with 
Christ, their souls must be brought before 
the mind who have been damned to the 
pains of hell, either because they would 
not believe the coming of Christ, or, al 
though they did believe, yet did not live 
conformably to His precepts; and that, 
either before the coming of Christ, or 
during the time in which Christ lived in 
this world, or subsequently to that time. 
Lastly, the greatest thanks must be given 
to the same Christ, that He has not per 
mitted me to fall into any such destruc 
tion, but rather has followed me up even 
to this day with so great love and mercy. 
An end will be made by saying Pater 

If he who gives the exercises shall think 
it expedient for the advancement of those 
who are being exercised, to add to these 
meditations others, as concerning Death 
and the other punishments of sin; con 
cerning Judgment, &c., let him not think 

. Jffnatittd lopola. 39 

himself prohibited, although they be not 
set down here.* 

As to the time of the exercises, it must 
be so distributed that the first may be per 
formed at midnight ; the second in the 
morning as soon as we are up ; the third 
before or after the sacrifice of the mass, 
before we have taken food ; the fourth 
about the hour of vespers ; the fifth in 
the hour before supper. Which distribu 
tion of time is the same for each of the 
four weeks : it may how r ever be varied, 
and either increased or diminished, ac 
cording as the age of each, his disposition 
of mind or body, or the complexion of his 
nature itself, helps him for the performance 
of the said five exercises. 


Which are very useful for the better performance of the 
exercises, and for "finding the things, which are desired. 

The first is, that after lying down, 
before sleep, I think for a short space of 
time, during which the Angelic Salutation 

[* This paragraph is not found in the original Spanish, 
but is a note of the Latin interpreter s. It is certain, 
however, that both St. Ignatius himself, and the Fathers 
taught by him, were accustomed to add such medita 

40 CT(je Spiritual (Kjrmtfiefii of 

might be said once, concerning the hour 
at which I shall have to rise, and 
concerning the exercise I have to per 

The second, that, when awake, imme 
diately excluding all other thoughts, I 
apply my mind to that which I am about 
to contemplate in the first exercise, the 
exercise of midnight; and that, for the 
sake of the greater shame and confusion, 
I set before me an example of this kind : 
how some soldier might stand before his 
king and the court, ashamed, anxious, and 
confounded ; having been convicted of 
having grievously offended against the 
king himself, from whom he had previously 
received very many and great favours and 
presents. In like manner, in the second 
exercise, thinking over how much I have 
sinned, let me imagine myself to be 
bound with chains, and presently about 
to be placed before the Supreme Judge, 
as any criminal guilty of death, bound 
with iron fetters, is ordinarily led to the 
tribunal. Engaged, therefore, with these 

* In the first Addition, where it is said and concern 
ing the exercise I have to perform; it would be said ac 
cording to the Autograph briefly going over in my mind 
the points of the exercise I have to perform. 

Lopola. 41 

or other thoughts, according to the nature 
of the things to be meditated upon, let 
me put on my clothes. 

The third, that, while yet separated by 
one or two paces from the place of my 
coming meditation, raising my mind for 
a short time, during which the Lord s 
Prayer might be gone through, I think 
of my Lord Jesus as present and see 
ing what I am about to do; to whom I 
must exhibit reverence with an humble 

The fourth is, to set about the contem 
plation itself, now kneeling on the ground, 
and lying on my face or on my back ; now 
sitting or standing ; and composing my 
self in the way in which I may hope the 
more easily to attain what I desire. In 
which matter these two things must be 
attended to : the first, that if on my knees, 
or in any other posture, I obtain what 
I wish, I seek nothing further. The 
second, that on the point in which I shall 
have attained the devotion I seek, I ought 
to rest, without being anxious about pass 
ing on, until I shall have satisfied myself. 

The fifth, that, after the completion of 
the exercise, sitting or walking, for about 
a quarter of an hour, I consider with my- 

42 C&e Spiritual errrcietfi of 

self how my meditation or contemplation 
has succeeded ; and if badly, examine the 
reasons, with repentance and purpose of 
amendment ; but if well, give thanks to 
God, intending to observe the same method 
for the future. 

The sixth, that I avoid those thoughts 
which bring joy, as that of the glorious 
Resurrection of Christ; since any such 
thought hinders the tears and grief for 
my sins, which must then be sought, by 
calling to mind rather Death or Judgment. 

The seventh, that, for the same reason 
I deprive myself of all the brightness of 
the light ; shutting the doors and windows 
so long as I remain there,* except while 
I have to read or take my food. 

The eighth, that from laughter, and 
words exciting laughter, I especially ab 

The ninth, that I direct my eyes on no 
one, unless the occasion of saluting or 
taking leave require it. 

The tenth, that I add some satisfaction, 
or penance. And this is divided into in 
terior and exterior. The interior is, grief 
for one s sins, with a firm purpose to be 
ware for the future, as well of them as of 

[ * Instead of there, the Autograph has in my 

. Jffnatma LopoU, 43 

all others. The exterior is the fruit of 
the interior; namely, some chastisement 
for the sins one has committed; which 
may be performed in three ways more 

First, in respect of food ; by withdraw 
ing some things, not merely superfluities 
(for this belongs to temperance, not to 
penance), but also suitable aliments: and 
the more one withdraws, the better one 
does ; avoiding, however, the injury of 
one s constitution, or any serious weak 
ness or infirmity. 

Secondly, concerning the manner of 
one s sleep and lying ; by withdrawing not 
soft or luxurious things alone, but also 
others which are suitable, so far as one 
may without serious danger to life or 
health. For which reason, nothing must be 
diminished from necessary sleep, unless for 
a short time, in order to moderate a cus 
tom (if any one has it) of sleeping too 

Thirdly, concerning the flesh itself; 
that it may feel the infliction of pain, by 
the application and wearing of haircloth, 
ropes, or iron bars ; or the application of 
strokes or blows, or the use of other aus 
terities. In all which things, however, 
it seems more expedient that the sense of 

44 C&c Spiritual ^erctficfi of 

pain should be in the flesh alone, and not 
penetrate the bones, with the danger of in 
jury to the health. Wherefore, we should 
use in preference whips made of small 
cords, which hurt the outward parts, and 
not those within, so as to injure the health. 

Moreover, these four things must be 
noted. Concerning penance, first, that 
the use or effect of external repentance is 
three-fold ; namely, that some satisfaction 
may be made for past sins; that a man 
may conquer himself, bringing his infe 
rior nature, which is called sensuality, 
into greater subjection to the superior, 
that is, to reason. Lastly, that we may 
seek and obtain some gift we desire of 
the Divine grace, such as an inward con 
trition of the heart for sins, and an abund 
ance of tears, either for them, or for the 
sufferings and pains of the Passion of 
Christ, or the solution of any doubt which 
afflicts us. 

The second, that the first two additions 
suit those exercises alone which are per 
formed in the middle of the night, and 
about dawn. And the fourth is never to 
be practised in church, or before others, 
but only at home and secretly. 

Thirdly, that when he who is being ex- 

lopoln. 45 

ercised does not attain the affection sought, 
as grief or consolation, it is expedient 
every now and then to change the plan of 
food and sleep, and the other kinds of 
penance ; so as that we follow one penance 
for three days, and for the next two or 
even three days leave it off; according as 
by different persons more or less penance 
must be performed. 

Moreover, since we often omit penances 
of this kind from fleshly affection or erro 
neous judgment, as though our natural 
constitution were unable to bear them 
without great damage to the health ; and 
sometimes, on the other hand, exceed the 
just measure of penance, trusting too 
much to the strength of the body ; by 
changing, as has been said, the kinds of 
penance, and taking and leaving them by 
turns, it generally happens that the most 
merciful Lord, who most perfectly knows 
our nature, enables each to discover that 
which suits him best. 

The fourth, that the particular exami 
nation be directed to the removal of the 
faults and negligences which are accus 
tomed to creep in as respects the exercises 
and additions ; which must be observed 
through the three other following weeks 

46 de &{itritnal <5tmi0t8 of 


A contemplation of the kingdom of Jesus Christ, from 

the likeness of an earthly king calling out his subjects 

to war. 

The preparatory prayer will be made in 
the way mentioned above. 

The first prelude for the construction 
of the place will now be, to imagine that 
we see the synagogues, villages, and 
towns, through which Christ passed 
preaching ; and so concerning other places. 

The second, relating to the obtaining of 
grace, will here be, to ask of God that we 
may not be deaf when Christ calls us ; but 
be ready to follow and obey. 

Let the first point be, to place before 
my eyes a human king, chosen of God, 
whom all Christian princes and people are 
bound to reverence and obey. 

The second, to imagine that I hear that 
king speaking to all his subjects : "I pro 
pose to subject to my power all the coun 
tries of the unbelievers. Whosoever, 
therefore, chooses to follow me, let him be 
prepared to use no other food, clothing, or 
other things, than what he sees me use. 


He must also persevere in the same labours, 
watchings, arid other difficulties with me, 
that each may partake of the victory and 
felicity in proportion as he shall have been 
a companion of the labours and troubles." 

The third is, to consider what his faith 
ful subjects ought to answer this most 
loving and liberal king, and how promptly 
to offer themselves prepared for all his 
will. And, on the other hand, if any one 
did not hearken, of how great reproach he 
would be worthy among all men, and how 
worthless a soldier he would have to be 

The second part of this exercise, con 
sists in drawing a comparison between the 
said king and our Lord Jesus Christ, con 
cerning these three points : 

First, we shall thus apply the example : 
if that earthly king, with his warlike call 
ing forth, is worthy to receive attention 
and obedience, how much more worthy is 
Christ, the Eternal King, and conspicuous 
to the whole world, Who invites each to 
Himself in these words : " This is My most 
just will, to claim to Myself the dominion 
of the whole world, to conquer all My 
enemies, and so to enter into My Father s 
glory. Whoever then desires to come 

48 (Lljc Spiritual <j:ernfifo of 

thither with Me, he must needs labour with 
Me; for the reward will be according to 
the labour." 

The second, we shall reason, that there 
will be no one of a sound mind, who will 
not most eagerly offer and dedicate himself 
entire to the service of Christ. 

Thirdly, it must be judged, that they 
who shall think good to be altogether sub 
jected to the obedience of Him, will offer, 
not merely themselves for the endurance 
of labours, but also some greater and more 
illustrious offerings, conquering the rebel 
lion of the flesh, of the senses, and of the 
love of self and the world ; whence each 
will answer to the following effect : 

" Behold, Supreme King and Lord of 
all things, I, though most unworthy, yet, 
relying on Thy grace and help, offer my 
self altogether to Thee, and submit to Thy 
will all that is mine ; testifying before 
Thine infinite goodness, as also in the 
sight of Thy glorious Virgin Mother, and 
of the whole court of heaven, that this is 
my mind, this my desire, this my most 
certain determination, that (so it turn to 
the greater advancement of Thy praise 
and my obedience) I may follow Thee as 
closely as possible, and imitate Thee in 

ms Lopola. 49 

bearing all injuries and adversities with 
the true poverty, both of spirit, and also 
of goods; if (I say) it please Thy most 
holy Majesty to choose and receive me to 
such a state of life." 

This exercise will be performed twice 
in the day ; in the morning as soon as 
we are up, and in the hour preceding 
dinner or supper. 

In this second and the following weeks, 
it will be useful to read something every 
now and then from the Gospel, or some 
other pious book, as the " Following of 
Christ" and the Lives of the Saints, &c. 


will be concerning the Incarnation of Christ ; containing 

a preparatory prayer, three preludes, and three points, 

with one colloquy. 

The preparatory prayer differs nothing 
from the preceding ones. 

The first prelude is, to bring forward the 
history of the matter to be contemplated ; 
which will here be, how the three Divine 
Persons looking upon the whole surface 
of the earth covered with men, who were 
descending into Hell, decree in the eter 
nity of their God-head, that, for the sal 
vation of the human race, the Second 


50 CJje Spiritual Certifies of 

Person should assume the nature of man ; 
whence, the pre-determined time arriving, 
the Archangel Gabriel is appointed a 
messenger to the blessed Virgin Mary, as 
will be said below in the Mysteries of the 
Life of Christ. 

The second relates to the composition 
of the place, which will be an imaginary 
vision, as if the whole circuit of the earth, 
inhabited by so many different nations, 
lay open before the eyes. Then in one 
particular part of the world, let the 
cottage of the blessed Virgin, situated at 
Nazareth, in the province of Galilee, be 

The third contains the asking of grace, 
that I may know intimately how the Son 
of God became man for my sake, that I 
may love Him the more ardently, and 
henceforth follow Him the more care 

It must be noted here, that as well the 
preparatory prayer as the three preludes 
are made in like manner through the 
whole week, and the following weeks 
which remain; the preludes only being 
varied [in form] according to the difference 
of the subjects. 

The first point is, that I view all the 

Jfct. 3Tffnatro0 iLopola. 51 

persons concerned; and first, the human 
beings living on the face of the earth, 
so different in manners, gestures, and 
actions ; some white, and others black ; 
some enjoying peace, arid the rest dis 
turbed by wars; this one weeping, and 
that one laughing ; one well, another ill , 
many being born, and many, on the other 
hand, dying ; with other varieties almost 

Next must be contemplated the three 
Divine Persons, from Their royal throne, 
looking upon all the races of men, living 
as blind on the surface of the earth, and 
descending to Hell. 

Afterwards, we shall consider the Vir 
gin Mary with the Angel saluting her; 
always applying something thence to our 
selves, that from such consideration we 
may derive some fruit. 

The second point is, to perceive by the 
inward hearing what all the Persons are 
saying, as what the men are saying, who 
on earth are conversing together, blas 
pheming, reviling each other ; what the 
Divine Persons are saying, Who, in Hea 
ven are speaking to each other concerning 
the redemption of the human race ; what 
the Virgin and the Angel are saying, who ; 

C&c Spiritual demises of 

in a little cell, are conversing on the Mys 
tery of the Incarnation. By reflecting 
on all which things, or making some ap 
plication of them to myself, I shall study 
to gather some fruit from each. 

The third, following naturally, will be, 
to consider at the same time the actions 
also of the persons ; as, for instance, how 
mortal men are treating one another with 
enmity and violence, killing one another, 
and all rushing to Hell ; how the Most 
Holy Trinity is performing the work of 
the Incarnation ; how, also, the Angel is 
executing his commission, and the blessed 
Virgin, bearing herself most humbly, is 
giving thanks to the Divine Majesty. 
From which things, applied by reflection, 
as has been said, to ourselves, we must 
gather fruit as we go on. 

Lastly, I shall add a colloquy, searching 
out studiously words with which I may 
be able worthily to address each Divine 
Person, the Word Incarnate, and His 
Mother; asking also, according to the 
affection I shall feel in myself, whatever 
may help to the greater imitation of my 
Lord Jesus Christ, as now newly incarnate. 
In the end will be said Pater noster. 

lopola. 53 

The Second Contemplation, 
Concerning the Nativity. 

The preparatory prayer as above. 

The first prelude is furnished by the 
history, which must be gone over from the 
going out of the blessed Virgin from the 
town of Nazareth; how, that is to say, 
being now with child in the ninth month, 
and sitting on a she-ass (as one may 
piously meditate), she and Joseph, with a 
poor maid-servant, and an ox, set out for 
Bethlehem, that they might pay the tri 
bute laid upon them by Caesar. 

The second is to be drawn from the 
consideration of the journey, by forming 
an idea of its length, obliquity, smooth 
ness or roughness, presenting itself from 
place to place. Then, also, we shall ex 
amine the place of the Nativity, like to a 
cavern ; whether broad or narrow, lying 
flat or rising up, conveniently or inconve 
niently prepared. 

The third will not be at all changed 
from that of the preceding meditation. 

The first point is the sight of the per 
sons, as of the Virgin Mother of God, and 
her husband Joseph, with the handmaid, 
and of the Lord Christ as an infant now 

54 C&c Spiritual (fymtoea of 

first born : amongst whom let me imagine 
myself to be present, *as a poor wretch, 
ministering to their necessities in such 
way as I might, with the greatest reve 
rence. And then let me consider what 
profit may accrue to me from such a sight. 

The second consists of the fruitful appre 
hension of the words which are being 
spoken in the same place. 

The third, of the inspection of the 
things which are being done there, as of 
the journey, the labours, and the causes 
on account of which the highest Lord of 
all was born in the greatest need; about 
to bear also, together with perpetual po 
verty, labours, hunger, thirst, heat, cold, 
reproaches, blows; and about to undergo 
at last the cross, and that for rny sake; 
whence I shall study by each to gather 
some spiritual profit. 

These things will be concluded by be 
ginning the colloquy, and finishing it with 
Pater noster. 

* In the first point, in as a poor wretch, ministering 
to t/<tir necessities itc. ; should be added from the Auto 
graph as follows : as a poor wretch, and unworthy ser- 
caiit, looking at them, contemplating them, and ministering 
to their necessities with the greatest reverence. 

The Third Contemplation 
Is the repetition of the preceding two. 

For the third exercise or contemplation, 
are repeated the preceding two, with the 
preparatory prayer, and the same three 
preludes, marking everywhere and study 
ing more fixedly those parts in the former 
going over of which I received any light, 
consolation, or desolation. The colloquy, 
too, with the Lord s prayer, will be added 
as before. 

It must be noted, that the manner and 
order of repeating the Exercise in this 
week and the following is the same as it 
was in the first ; except that the matter is 
changed, the same form remaining. 

The Fourth Contemplation 

Is a renewed repetition of the first and second, altogether 
conformable to the last preceding. 

The Fifth Contemplation 
Is the application of the senses to those mentioned above. 

After the preparatory prayer, with the 
three already mentioned preludes, it 
is eminently useful to exercise the five 
imaginary senses concerning the first and 

56 C&e >ptntttal <&ftm&c8 of 

second contemplations in the following 
way, according as the subject shall bear. 

The first point will be, to see in imagi 
nation all the persons, and, noting the 
circumstances which shall occur con 
cerning them, to draw out what may be 
profitable to ourselves. 

The second, by hearing as it were what 
they are saying, or what it may be natural 
for them to say, to turn all to our own 

The third, to perceive by a certain in 
ward taste and smell, how great is the 
sweetness and *delightfulness of the soul 
imbued with the divine gifts and virtues, 
according to the nature of the person we 
are considering, adapting to ourselves those 
things which may bring us some fruit. 

The fourth, by an inward touch to 
handle and kiss the garments, places, 
foot-steps, and other things connected 
with such persons ; whence we may derive 
a greater increase of devotion, or of any 
spiritual good. 

This contemplation will be terminated, 

* In the fifth contemplation, in the third point, de- 
l. i <j/tt fulness of the soul imbued <fec., should be read de- 
lightfulness of the divinity of the soul, and of its virtues ; 
and of all the other tilings, according to the nature ttc. 

loolnu 57 

like the former ones, by adding in like 
manner Pater noster. 

These five things must moreover be 
noted. The first, that as well in this as 
in each following week, I ought not to 
read or think of any other mystery than 
that which is to be considered the same 
hour or day; as otherwise one disturbs 

The second, that the first exercise con 
cerning the Incarnation of Christ is per 
formed at midnight ; the next at dawn ; 
the third about the hour of Mass; the 
fourth about the time of Vespers ; the 
fifth a little before supper ; and on each of 
them will be spent the space of one hour; 
which same thing has to be observed 
henceforward every where. 

The third, that if he who is being ex 
ercised is old, or exhausted in strength by 
the first week, it is sometimes better that 
he should not rise in the night, but only 
perform [the first] three contemplations ; 
at dawn, about the time of Mass, before 
dinner ; adding besides one repetition 
about the time of Vespers, *and the ap 
plication of the senses before supper. 

* In the five Notanda. In the third, and the applica- 

58 7)e Spiritual (Exercises of 

The fourth, that in this second week, 
the second, sixth, and seventh, with part 
of the tenth, of the Additions given in 
the first week, ought to be varied. 

In the second, this change is made, 
that as soon as I am awaked from sleep, 
I ought to set before my mind the medi 
tation immediately at hand, and to stir 
up the desire of knowing more clearly the 
eternal Word Incarnate, that I may serve 
and cleave to Him by so much the more 
earnestly, by how much the more incre 
dible I shall have seen that His goodness 
to me is. 

In the sixth, to turn frequently over in 
my memory the Life of Christ from the 
time of the Incarnation up to the place or 
Mystery concerning which I am about to 
meditate in the present day or hour. 

In the seventh, that I so far take plea 
sure in light or darkness, clear sky or 
cloudy, as it serves towards reaching the 
mark of the thing desired. 

In the tenth, that I so govern myself as 
the nature of the Mystery to be contem 
plated seems to require ; as some of the 
Mysteries demand penance, others not. 

tion of the senses before supper, read from the Autograph 
and afterwards the application of the senses before supper. 


The ten Additions then must be used cir 

The fifth and last thing to be noted is, 
that in all the exercises of the other hours, 
except those of midnight and dawn, there 
must be taken something which may 
be equivalent to the second *and third 
Addition, after this manner : as soon as 
I shall remember, that the hour of medi 
tation is at hand, before coming to it, I 
shall consider from a distance, whither I 
am going, and before Whom I am about 
to appear, arid running in a passing way 
over a part of the exercise presented to 
me, commence the contemplation at once. 


The subject of the first and second con 
templations will be the Presentation of 
Christ in the Temple, concerning which 
below; fand the Flight into Egypt, con 
cerning which also below in the Mysteries 
of the Life of Christ. Concerning these 
two contemplations there will be made a 

[* The words and third have found their way by mis 
take into the Common Version.] 

t In the second day, and the Flight into Egypt, is 
added according to the Autograph and the Flight of 
Tus Same going into exile, as it were, into Egypt. 

60 (Tf)e Spiritual dfrrrrises of 

double repetition, and the application of 
the senses, as above. 

It must be noted, that it is sometimes 
expedient, that he who is being exercised, 
although he be endued both with vigour 
of mind and strength of body, should di 
minish something from the prescribed 
exercises of *this second and the two fol 
lowing weeks; in order that he may be 
the better able to attain what he desires ; 
taking only one contemplation in the 
morning twilight, and another about the 
timo of .Mass; the repetition of which two 
let him make at the hour of Vespers ; and 
before supper exercise the five senses of 
the imagination concerning the same. 


The subject for meditation will be, how 
the Boy Jesus was subject to His parents 
at Nazareth : then how He was found by 
them in the Temple, as below, in the 
Mysteries of the Life of Christ. There 
will be made also two repetitions, together 
with the application of the senses. 

[* The Spanish original speaks only of the second, 
third, and fourth days of the second week.] 

t. Sfffnattttc Lcpoia. 61 


*The example of Christ having been 
above set before us concerning that kind 
of life which consists in keeping the com 
mands of God, and is called the first or 
common state ; now the same Lord Him 
self, while we are told of His being sub 
ject to His parents, appears to exhibit the 
form of the other or second state, which 
springs from obedience, and brings the 
Gospel perfection ; when, that is to say, He 
betook Himself to the Temple, leaving His 
adopted Father and His natural Mother, 
that He might attend freely on the service 
of His everlasting Father. Wherefore it 
will be fitting here that we also, contem 
plating His Life, should search out and in- 
treat that peculiar kind of life, in which 
He prefers us to serve His own Majesty. 

* In the prelude after the contemplation of the third 
day, what is there said concerning the distinction of the 
two states will be put more clearly from the Autograph 
as follows : " The example of Christ having been above 
set before us concerning that kind of life which consists 
in keeping the commands of God, while we are told of 
His being subject to His Parents, and is called the first 
or common state ; now the same Lord Himself appears 
to exhibit the form of the other or second state, which 
brings the Gospel perfection ; when, that is to say, He 
betook Himself to the Temple," &c. 

62 (T&c Spiritual ^trctflicfi of 

To the searching out, then, of this, we 
may be introduced by the next following 
Exercise, attending to the mind of Christ, 
compared with the opposite one of the 
enemy. AVe shall also learn thence, of 
what disposition we have need, that we 
may become perfect in that state, what 
ever it may be, which the Divine good 
ness shall have suggested to us for choice. 


Will lie made a meditation concerning *Two Standards : 
one that of Jesus Christ, our most excellent General ; 
the other that of Lucifer, the most capital enemy of men. 

The preparatory prayer is made accord 
ing to custom. 

The first prelude will be a certain his 
torical consideration of Christ on the one 
part, and Lucifer on the other, each of 
whom is calling all men to him, to be 
gathered together under his standard. 

The second is, for the construction of 
the place, that there be represented to us 
a most extensive plain around Jerusalem, 
in which our Lord Jesus Christ stands as 
the Chief-General of all good people. Again, 
another plain in the country of Babylon, 

[* So the Spanish original, without the article.] 

Hopola. 63 

where Lucifer presents himself as the cap 
tain of the wicked and [God s] enemies. 

The third, for asking grace, will be this, 
that we ask to explore and see through 
the deceits- of the evil captain, invoking 
at the same time the Divine help in order to 
avoid them ; and to know, and by grace be 
able to imitate, the sincere ways of the 
true and most excellent General, Christ. 

The first point is, to imagine before 
my eyes, in the Babylonian plain, the 
captain of the wicked, sitting in a chair 
of fire and smoke, horrible in figure, and 
terrible in countenance. 

The second, to consider how, having as 
sembled a countless number of demons, he 
disperses them through the whole world 
in order to do mischief; no cities or places, 
no kinds of persons, being left free. 

The third, to consider what kind of ad 
dress he makes to his servants, whom he 
stirs up to seize, and secure in snares and 
chains, and so draw men (as commonly 
happens) to the desire of riches, whence 
afterwards they may the more easily be 
forced down into the ambition of worldly 
honour, and thence into the abyss of pride. 

Thus, then, there are three chief degrees 
of temptation, founded in riches, honours, 

64 (L&e Spiritual Cjrmterfi of 

and pride; from which three to all other 
kinds of vices the downward course is 

In like manner, on the opposite side, must 
be considered our most exalted and ex 
cellent Leader and Commander, Christ. 
The first point will be, to see Christ in 
a pleasant plain by Jerusalem ; placed, in 
deed, in lowly state, but very beautiful in 
form, and in appearance supremely wor 
thy of love. 

The second is, to consider how He, the 
Lord of the whole world, sends His chosen 
Apostles, Disciples, and other Ministers 
through the world, to impart to every 
race, state, and condition of men, His sa 
cred and saving doctrine. 

The third, to hear the exhortatory speech 
of Christ to all His servants and friends 
destined to such a work, wherein He bids 
them study to help all, and first to take 
care to lead them to the spiritual affection 
of poverty; and moreover (if the course 
of duty to God, and the choice of heaven 
leads that way) to real and actual po 
verty; then to draw them to the desire 
of reproach and contempt, from which 
[whence] springs the virtue of humility. 
And thus there arise three degrees of 

Sfanatuts lopola. 65 

perfection ; namely, poverty, self-abase 
ment, and humility; which are diametri 
cally opposed to riches, honour, and pride, 
and introduce at once to all virtues. 

A colloquy is afterwards to be made 
to the Blessed Virgin, and grace is to be 
implored through her from her Son, that 
I may be received and remain under His 
standard ; and that, first by poverty, either 
that which is only spiritual, or further, 
that which consists in the loss of one s 
goods (if indeed He shall vouchsafe to 
call and admit me thereto) ; then by- 
contempt or ignominy also, I may imi 
tate Him the more closely, praying how 
ever against others being in fault, lest the 
contempt of me turn both to the damage 
of some other, and to the offence of God. 
This first colloquy will be terminated by 
Ave Maria. 

The second colloquy is directed to the 
Man Christ, that He would gain for me 
that same from the Father ; and the prayer 
Anima Chris ti will be added at the end. 

The third to the Father, that He would 
grant the petition, with Pater noster. 

This Exercise will be gone through 
once in the middle of the night, and again 
just before dawn. 

66 ({)e Spiritual 6^erci0e6 of 

And two repetitions, about the time of 
the Morning Sacrifice and of Vespers, will 
have to be made, adding at the end the 
three colloquies. And the following Ex 
ercise will be made before supper. 


To be made the same Fourth Day, concerning three 

Classes* or differences of men, that we may 

choose the better part. 

The preparatory prayer as in all former 

Let the first prelude be made by setting 
before us, to serve as the history, three 
distinct Classes of men, each of which 
has acquired ten thousand ducats with 
some other aim than that of the service 
and love of God ; but now desires to pacify 
God and be saved, getting rid somehow 
or other of -f the hurtful love of property, 
as being a hindrance to salvation. 

The second is an imaginary construc 
tion of a certain place, in which I may 
see myself standing with perseverance be 
fore God and all the Saints, with the de- 

[* In the original, here and everywhere, PairsJ] 
t In the meditation of the fourth day, concerning 
three classes of men, in the end of the first prelude, for 
the hurtful love of property, should be read the hurt/id 
love of the property acquired. 

loola. 67 

sire of knowing how I may best please 
God Himself. 

The third is to ask the thing I de 
sire, namely, grace to choose that which 
will be both most acceptable to God and 
most conducive to my own salvation. 

The first Class, then, desire indeed to 
get rid of the love of the property they 
have acquired, in order that they may be 
reconciled to God ; but do not apply the 
means and due helps *during the whole 
time of life. 

The second desire, in like manner, to 
put away the inordinate affection, but at 
the same time to hold fast the property, 
and rather draw God to their own wish, 
than forsake their hindrance and move 
towards Him by means of the more con 
ducive state. 

Lastly, the third, while they desire to 
cast away the worldly affection, are also 
equally prepared either to part with or to 
keep the property itself; whichever they 
shall perceive, either by the Divine mo 
tion, or by the dictates of reason, to be 
more conducive to the service of God ; 

* In the first Class, during the whole time of life: from 
the Autograph up to the hour of death. 

68 Cfje >pirttttal perctsiefi of 

*and in the meantime, leaving all as it is, 
turn over and examine that question only, 
and admit no other cause of leaving or 
retaining the property acquired, except 
the consideration and desire of the Divine 
glory, that that glory may be the greatest 

Three colloquies will follow, as they 
were made a little above concerning the 

It must be observed here, that when 
we perceive that the affection is opposed 
to the perfect poverty, which consists both 
in the spirit, and in the renunciation of 
property, and that it inclines rather to 
riches; it is very profitable, in order to the 
striking out of such affection, to ask of God, 
even though the flesh resist, that He would 
choose us to poverty of this kind: fwe 

* In the third, and in the meantime, leaving all as it 
is, <fec. to the end, we may render more clearly from 
the Autograph as follows -.and, in the meantime, to bear 
themselves as they who have left all in affection; striving, 
th it is to say, to desire neither this nor anything else, 
except so far as regard for the service of God may move 
them; so as not to admit any other cause of leaving or re 
taining the 2iroperty acquired, except the consideration and 
desire of serving [literally of being able to serve ] our Lord 
God better. 

t In the observation we shall preserve, however, in the 
meantime, <fec. to the end, it stands in the Autograph as 
follows : and this particular thing to desire, ask, and in- 
treat, regarding only the service and glory of His Divine 

t. Jsnatttus lopola. 69 

shall preserve, however, in the meantime, 
the liberty of our desire, whereby it may 
be lawful to us to go the way which is the 
more suitable to the service of God. 


Will follow a contemplation concerning our Lord s jour 
ney from Nazareth to the river Jordan, and concerning 
His Baptism, as below in the Mysteries of the Life of 

It will take place as well at midnight as 
the first thing in the morning. It will, 
moreover, be repeated twice about the 
hours of Mass and Vespers. Before sup 
per, the five senses will be applied. And 
each of these five Exercises will be pre 
ceded by the preparatory prayer with the 
three preludes, as has been explained in 
those above, concerning the Incarnation 
and the Nativity ; adding also the three 
colloquies, as concerning the Classes, or 
according to what was there noted at the 

And the usual particular examination 
after dinner and supper, will be made on 
this and the following days concerning 
the faults and negligences which have hap 
pened with respect to the particular Me 
ditations and Additions of that day. 

70 Cije Spiritual (Brmtficfi of 


is offered for contemplation, how from the river Jordan 

Christ Jesus went to the Desert and there stayed ; the 

plan of the Fifth Day being preserved throughout. 


how blessed Andrew and the others in succession 
followed Christ. 


how our Lord preached the Sermon on the Mount, setting 
forth eight Modes of Blessedness. 


how to the Disciples sailing He shewed Himself, walking 
on the waters of the sea. 

how He taught in the Temple. 

concerning the raising of Lazarus. 


concerning the things done on Palm Sunday. 

The above-mentioned Mysteries see below, among 

the Mysteries of the Life of Christ. 

These three observations must here be 
made. In the first place, that in this se 
cond week, according to the command of 

lopola. 71 

time, and the advantage of the person ex 
ercising himself, some meditations may 
be either added to the foregoing; as con 
cerning the Mysteries of the Visitation, 
the Shepherds, the Circumcision, and the 
Three Kings ; or withdrawn from them : 
they being only sketched as an introduc 
tion, for the purpose of forming better 
(the method of) contemplation. 

^Secondly, that the consideration of 
Elections is to be begun from the contem- 

S ation of the departure of Christ from 
azareth towards the Jordan, so as to 
include that which is made on the fifth 
day with the rest. 

Thirdly, that before we enter upon the 
matter of Elections, in order that we may 
dispose our affection to receive the genuine 
doctrine of Christ, it is eminently profit 
able to consider, and through the whole 
day revolve every now and then, the 
three following Modes of Humility, as well 

* In the second observation after the twelfth medi 
tation, Secondly, that the consideration &e. to the end, 
all ground for doubt is removed, if we render as follows 
from the Autograph : Secondly, that the consideration of 
elections is to be begun from the contemplation of the de 
parture of Christ from Nazareth towards the Jordan inclu 
sively, which is performed on the fifth day ; in the manner 
explained below. 

C&c ^ptrtttinl Cjrmteffif of 

as perform repeatedly the colloquies to be 

The first Mode of Humility is this, 
which is necessary for salvation, that I 
altogether subject myself to the observance 
of the law of God, and that, not even on 
the dominion of the whole world being 
offered me, or the utmost danger of life 
set before me, I transgress deliberately 
any divine or human command, which 
binds us under the penalty of mortal sin. 

The second belongs to a greater per 
fection, namely, that with a fixed mind I 
be equally inclined towards riches and 
poverty, honour and ignominy, shortness 
and length of life, where the opportunity 
of the praise of God and of my own sal 
vation is equal ; and that by the setting 
before me of no condition, either of human 
felicity ever so great, or of my own death, 
I be ever induced to decide to commit a 
sin, although only venial. 

The third mode belongs to the most 
perfect humility, namely, that, having 
already attained to the two former, al 
though without anything superadded, the 
glory of God should be equal, yet, for the 
sake of the greater imitation of Christ, I 
choose rather with Him, who was poor, 

t. JJtrnattufii lopola. 73 

despised, and mocked, to embrace poverty, 
contempt, and the reputation of folly, 
than wealth, honours, and the estimation 
of wisdom. 

Moreover, for the attainment of this 
degree of humility, it will afford a great 
help to use the preceding threefold col 
loquy concerning the Standards, asking 
suppliantly (if it please the Divine good 
ness) to be brought to such an election, 
whether the result to be gained in my 
service towards God, and in the Divine 
glory, be greater or equal. 


towards making the Election. 

In order to choose anything well, it is 
our duty, with a pure and single eye to con 
sider for what purpose we were created, 
namely, for the praise of God, and our 
own salvation. Wherefore those things 
alone are to be chosen which conduce to 
this end ; since in all cases the means 
ought to be subordinate to the end, not 
the end to the means. Whence they err, 
who determine first to marry a wife, or 
take an ecclesiastical office or benefice, 
and then afterwards serve God, reversing 

74 (TTJc Spiritual (Kpmtfiea of 

the use of the end and means, and not 
going straight to God, but obliquely, en 
deavouring to draw Him over to their own 
perverse desires. But the way to act is 
the direct contrary, to set before us first 
the service of God as our end, and then 
to choose Marriage, or the Priesthood, as 
well as all other things, so far as it is ex 
pedient, they being ordered towards the 
end previously determined on. Nothing 
therefore ought to move us to use or ab 
stain from any means, except after a reso 
lute consideration in the first instance, as 
well of the praise of God as of our own 

A n Introduction to the knowledge of the th ings to be chosen, 
containing four Points and one Annotation. 

The first point is, that all those things 
which are the subject of election, must of 
necessity be good in themselves, or at least 
not bad, nor otherwise than consonant to 
the institutions of the orthodox Mother 

The second, that two kinds of things 
belong to election. For of some the elec 
tion is unchangeable, as of the Priestly 
Ordination and of Matrimony ; whereas 
that of others may be changed, as of eccle- 

JLoola. 75 

siastical or secular revenues, which may 
lawfully be accepted or relinquished for a 
sufficient reason. 

The third, that, in the case of those 
things concerning which an unchangeable 
election has already been made, nothing, 
indeed, remains to be chosen ; but it must 
be observed, that if any one has chosen in 
considerately, and not without oblique 
affections, something which he is not at 
liberty to reconsider, there remains, when 
he has begun to repent of his deed, to 
compensate the damage of the election by 
the goodness of his life, and the diligence 
of his works ; but to go back is by no 
means fitting, although an election of this 
kind does not seem to be a divine voca 
tion, being oblique and inconsiderately 
made. In which matter not a few are in 
error, counting a bad and oblique election 
for a divine vocation, whereas this last is 
always pure and clear, not mixed with 
any carnal affection or perverse desire. 

The fourth, that if any one in due man 
ner and order, without carnal and worldly 
affection, has chosen anything which may 
be changed, there is no reason to disturb 
an election of this kind, but rather he ought 
to strive to advance more and more in it. 

It must be noted, however, that if an 

^ptrttttal (Bjrmtcica of 

election of mutable things of this kind has 
not been conducted altogether rightly and 
sincerely, it is expedient to correct it, in 
order that more abundant fruit, and more 
acceptable to God, may be produced. 

Concerning three Times more suitable thaii others for 
n t< (king Elections rightly. 

The first time will be, when the divine 
power so impels the will, that all doubt, 
or rather all power of doubting, is re 
moved from the mind, as to following 
such impulse ; as we read that it happened 
to St. Paul, St. Matthew, and some others, 
when called by Christ. 

The second is, whenever the good plea 
sure of God becomes sufficiently clear and 
ascertained, some previous experience of 
consolations, or of different spirits, teach 
ing it. 

The third is, when any one in a tran 
quil state of mind, having considered the 
end for which he was made (namely, the 
glory of God and his own salvation), 
chooses a certain kind of life, lying within 
the bounds of the Catholic Church, 
whereby, as by a mean, he may advance 
more conveniently and securely to his end. 

And this tranquillity is then known to 


be present, when the soul, not disturbed 
by any various spirits, freely exercises her 
natural powers. 

Unless, then, the election be made by 
favour of the first or second time, what 
remains is to have recourse to the third, 
which is divided into the two following 

The First Method of making a good and sound Election, 
consisting of six Points. 

The first point will be, to present to 
my mind the question to be considered, as 
concerning an office, or benefice, whether it 
should be accepted or rejected; and so 
concerning other things which belong to 
a mutable election. 

The second is, having brought before 
my eyes the end of my creation, which is, 
that I should praise God, and be saved, to 
incline to neither side as regards embrac 
ing or rejecting the thing in question ; but 
rather to stand in a kind of middle inter 
val and equilibrium, my mind meanwhile 
being prepared to follow at once and alto 
gether that course which I shall per 
ceive to be the more conducive to the 
divine glory and my own salvation. 

The third, to intreat the mercy of God, 

78 Cjjc Spiritual (Eperctfiefi of 

that He will vouchsafe to instruct my 
mind and impel my will in that direction 
in which I ought in preference to go ; 
employing none the less the pious and 
faithful reasoning of my understanding, 
whereby, having apprehended and proved 
the will of God, I may proceed to the 

The fourth, to consider how many ad 
vantages or helps will be gained for the 
attainment of my end by undertaking 
such an office or benefice ; and, again, 
how many disadvantages and dangers are 
threatened by it ; also how many advan 
tages and helps, as well as dangers and 
losses, I may expect from the opposite 
side, if I pass it by. 

The fifth, having taken these steps, to 
reason on both sides, and according to the 
dictate of reason itself, setting aside all 
fleshly desire, to conclude the election. 

The sixth, having made the election, to 
hasten at once to prayer, and offer it to 
God, to be by Him then, if such be His 
good pleasure, accepted and established. 

The Second Method of choosing welt, divided into four 
Hides and one Annotation. 

The first rule is, that, since the election 

lopola. 79 

must be made by means of an affection 
infused from above from the love of God, 
it is fit that he who is making his choice 
should feel that whatever affection he has 
(be it much or little) towards the thing 
chosen, proceeds from the love and consi 
deration of God alone. 

The second is*, to consider, if I met a 
man in the highest degree my friend and 
in whom I should wish no perfection to be 
wanting, in doubt concerning an election 
of this kind, what I should most advise him 
to determine. Which when I shall have 
perceived, let me account that I also should 
do as I should advise my neighbour. 

The third, to consider moreover with 
myself, if death were coming on me, what 
plan I should prefer to have observed in 
the present deliberation. After this plan 
therefore, I may easily understand that I 
should make iny election now. 

* In the second method of choosing well, in the second 
rule, The second is, Arc. to the end, we may render more 
clearly from the Autograph as follows : The second is, 
to consider, if 1 met a man before unknown to me, and 
whom I had never seen at all, in whom however I should 
wish no perfection to be wanting, in doubt concerning an 
election oft/as kind, what, for the sake of the greater glory 
of God, and the greater perfection of his soul, I should 
most advise him to do and choose. Which when I shall have 
perceived, let me account that I should do myself what I 
should advise my neighbour. 

80 (T(>e Spiritual 6m*ctfiiCBi of 

The fourth, to look forward no less, 
what plan I should wish, when placed be 
fore the tribunal to be judged, to have 
followed in this matter. And having de 
termined this, let me follow it now, that I 
may then have the less fear. 

In the last place, it must be noted that, 
having carefully observed these four rules 
for my salvation and the rest of my soul, 
I ought, according to the last point of the 
preceding Method, to determine the elec 
tion itself, and offer it to God to be ap 

Concerning Amendment or Reformation to be made ly 
any one with respect to his condition of life. 

It must be observed first, that if any 
one be tied to matrimony, or to an office 
of ecclesiastical dignity (whether the 
amount of temporal goods be great or 
small is immaterial), in consequence of 
which he is not at liberty or not much 
disposed, to occupy himself concerning 
elections of things mutable; it is worth 
while, instead of these, to give him some 
method and plan by which he may be 
able to amend his own life and condition. 
Whosoever, therefore, has fallen upon a 
condition of this kind, ought, in order 

tttsi lopola* 81 

rightly to lay down and follow the end 
of his creation, and of his life, to deter 
mine, by means of the aforesaid Exercises 
and Methods of Election, by attentive and 
diligent consideration, how large a house 
and how many servants he ought to have ; 
how he ought to manage and govern them ; 
with what words and examples to instruct 
them : also what portion of his property he 
may expend for his own uses or those of 
his household, and what he should give to 
the poor, or to pious works: not aiming 
at, or seeking, anything else but what may 
be productive of the honour of God, and 
of his own salvation. 

For of this let every one be persuaded, 
that the measure of his advance in things 
spiritual, will be the measure of his with 
drawal from the love of himself, and from 
attachment to his own advantage. 

82 (ZT&e H>ptrttttal (j*rctseg of 



Is made* at midnight, and contains a Preparatory Prayer, 
three Preludes, six Points, with one Colloquy. 

The preparatory prayer is the same as 
in all other cases. 

The first prelude is taken from the his 
tory: how Christ sent from Bethania to 
Jerusalem the two Disciples to prepare 
the Supper, whither Himself also, with 
the others, afterwards went; and there, 
after the eating of the Paschal Lamb, and 
supper finished, He washed all their feet, 
and gave them His most sacred Body and 
Blood. Lastly, He preached to them 
after the departure of Judas, who was 
about to sell Him. 

The second, from the composition of 
the place, by considering the said way as 
rough or smooth, short or long, with the 
other circumstances which might belong 

* In the Third Week. In the title of the first contem 
plation, The first contemplation is made at midnight, <fec., 
add from the Autograph: The first contemplation , concern 
ing the Journey of Christ our Lord from Bethania into 
Jerusalem, and concerning what took place up to the Last 
Supper inclusively, is made at midnight, and contains <fec. 


to it ; then viewing the place of the Sup 
per as wide or narrow, plain or adorned, 
and the like. 

The third, from prayer for the thing 
desired ; that is to say, grief, indignation, 
and confusion, that on account of my sins 
the highest Lord of all should thus offer 
Himself to so great torments. 

The first point will be, to see them that 
are at supper, and draw something to my 

The second, to hear the same, what they 
are saying, arid thence gather fruit. 

The third, to attend to what they are 
doing, and profit by everything. 

The fourth*, to consider what already 
from that time Christ is seeking and be 
ginning to suffer, according to the history : 
whence let me begin myself also to ex 
cite in myself grief, sorrow, and weeping ; 
in like manner to afflict myself in the 
points which follow. 

* In the fourth point, The fourth, to consider what 
already from that time <fec., we should render as follows 
from the Autograph : The fourth, to consider what Christ 
our Lord is suffering in His humanity, or seeking to suffer; 
according to the point taken for meditation: whence let me 
begin myself also to excite in myself with the greatest efforts, 
grief, sorrow, and weeping; and I shall take care of the 
same thing in the points that follow. 

84 ciljc Spiritual Cjrmtfiea of 

The fifth, to meditate how the Divinity 
of Christ hides Itself; and, though able, 
destroys not His enemies, but permits His 
humanity to suffer such cruel punish 

The sixth, to consider, when He bears 
such things for my sins, what I ought to 
do or suffer for His sake. 

The colloquy will be made to Christ, 
and concluded with the Pater noster. 

In the colloquies it must be observed 
(as we have already partly explained 
above), that we ought to act and pray 
according to the state of the case ; that is 
to say, according as I feel in myself con 
solation or perturbation; according as I 
desire one virtue or another; according as 
I intend to dispose concerning myself in 
this direction or that ; according, also, as 
I desire to sorrow or to rejoice concerning 
the subject I am contemplating. Lastly, 
I must ask that which I most desire as 
regards some particular thing: and one 
colloquy alone may be made to Christ our 
Lord; or three, if devotion moves to it; 
namely, to the Mother, the Son, and the 
Father ; as has been laid down in the con 
templation of the Second Week, concern- 

loola. 85 

irig the three Classes, with the Annotation 
there following. 


At day-break, concerning what Christ did after Supper, 

and in the Garden. 

The preparatory prayer to which we 
are al \vays accustomed. 

The first prelude is according to the 
history: how Jesus Christ came down, 
together with His eleven Disciples, out of 
Mount Sion, where they had supped ; and 
passing through the valley of Josaphat, 
having left eight of them there, and the 
other three in a part of the Garden, Him 
self, withdrawing alone, prayed till He 
sweated blood, *the same prayer having 
been now thrice repeated to His Father. 
Afterwards, when He had roused His dis 
ciples from sleep ; when His enemies, to 
gether with Judas, who betrayed Him with 
a kiss, had been prostrated at His voice 
alone ; when, after this, He had restored 
Malchus s ear, which Peter had cut off, 
He was taken at length, like any wicked 
man or robber, and through that valley 
dragged first to the house of Annas. 

[*It would be more in accordance with the original 
to put a full stop after blood, and join The same <tc., 
with the following sentence]. 

^ptrttttal (Sjrerciaefi of 

The second is, for the construction of 
the place, to see the way, descending, flat, 
and of steep ascent ; also the Garden, 
which must be imagined of a certain size, 
shape, and nature. 

The third, for the obtaining of my de 
sire, to ask for grief, mourning, anxiety, 
and the other inward pains of that kind, 
that I may suffer together with Christ 
suffering for me. 

At the same time these four things must 
be noted. First, that after the prepa 
ratory prayer, with the three preludes, of 
this second Exercise, we must proceed in 
the same method and order through the 
points, and through the colloquy, as was 
performed in the preceding contemplation 
concerning the Supper. There will have to 
be added, also, about the time of Mass and 
Vespers, two repetitions of each of these 
two contemplations. And before supper 
we shall apply the five senses, prefixing 
always the preparatory prayer, with the 
three preludes, suitable to the matter 
offered, as has been sufficiently described 
in the Second Week. 

Secondly, that, regard being had to the 
age, bodily constitution, and whole dis 
position of the person who is being exer- 

JLopola* 87 

cised, either five or fewer exercises will 
be made up each day. 

Thirdly, that in this Third Week, the 
second and sixth Additions are to be par 
tially changed; since, as regards the se 
cond, as soon as I am awake, considering 
beforehand to what I am going, and run 
ning over a little the contemplation I am 
about to make, in the meantime, while I 
am rising and dressing, I shall strive at 
the same time earnestly to stir myself up 
to sorrow and grief concerning so many 
and so great pains of Christ. 

And with regard to the sixth, I shall 
avoid, rather than seek or admit, agree 
able considerations, although otherwise 
useful and holy, such as are those con 
cerning Christ s Resurrection and Glory; 
instead of which, in meditating on His 
Passion, I shall draw sorrows and pains 
from the frequent remembrance of those 
things which, from the hour of His birth 
even to His departure from this life, He 

Fourthly, that the particular examina 
tion, concerning the performance as well 
of the Exercises as of the Additions, will 
be made in the same way as in the pre 
ceding Week. 

88 C5e Spiritual (rmteefi of 


\Vill follow, another contemplation to be made in the 
night, concerning the things done in the house of 
Annas*, as is related below in the Mysteries of the 
Life of Christ : and at day-break, concerning the things 

- which followed in the house of Caiphas : then the re 
petitious, and the use of the senses, as before. 


We shall contemplate at midnight, how Christ was led to 
Pilate, and what took place there, as will be said below ; 
and in the morning, concerning the things which were 
done when Christ had been sent to Herod. There will 
be added the accustomed use of the repetitions, and of 
the senses. 


The nocturnal meditation will go through the history 
from the return from Herod to the middle of the Mys 
teries which followed at Pilate s house ; and with the 
remaining portion we shall proceed about day-break. 
And concerning the repetitions and the senses we must 
do as usual. 


At midnight, we shall contemplate concerning the same 
progress of the Passion, from the sentence of Pilate 

[* In the Autograph -from the garden to the house of 
Annas inclusively ; and presently after -from the house 
of Annas to the house of Caiphas inclusively. " Our holy 
Father always includes in the contemplation the labo 
rious journeys of our Lord, while He is dragged from 
pkce to place, and from tribunal to tribunal, not without 
the greatest pain and ignominy, both deservedly to be 
contemplated." Father Rothaan.~\ 

&t. Sfffnattttfi Lopolrt. 89 

to the Crucifixion : then, at day-break, from the eleva 
tion of the Cross to the expiration of Christ : the repe 
titions, and the exercise of the senses, as above. 


In the night, how our Lord, when dead, was taken from 
the Cross and carried to the Sepulchre : the first thing 
in the morning, from the time when He was buried, 
until the Blessed Virgin retired to some house. 


In the night and morning, we shall go over the whole 
Passion. Afterwards, instead of repetitions and the 
use of the senses, we shall consider during the whole 
day, as frequently as possible, how the most holy Body 
of Jesus Christ remained separated from His Soul ; 
and where, or how, buried : also what the loneliness of 
His blessed Mother Mary was, of what kind her deso 
lation, and how great her affliction : how bitter, also, 
the grief of the Disciples was. 

It must be noted, that if any one wishes 
to spend a longer time in meditating on the 
Passion of Christ, he ought to complete 
each contemplation with fewer Mysteries; 
so as in the first to include only the Sup 
per; in the second, the Washing of the 
feet; in the third, the Institution of the 
holy Eucharist ; in the fourth, the Sermon 
which there followed : and so he must do 

Moreover, the whole Passion having 
been gone over, on the following day he 
may go over half of it again, and on the day 

90 (ZT&e Spiritual QZfmi&ts of 

after the rest; on the third day the whole 
again at once. 

And, on the other hand, if any one pre 
fers to shorten the time, let him contem 
plate concerning our Lord s Supper in the 
night ; concerning the garden at day 
break; concerning the house of Annas 
about the time of Mass ; about the time of 
Vespers concerning the house of Caiphas; 
concerning the praBtorium of Pilate be 
fore supper : and by going on thus, five 
different Exercises will be accomplished 
each day, the use of the repetitions and 
of the senses being omitted. And when 
he has gone over the Passion, it will 
be worth while to go over again the 
whole of the same together in one day, 
either uniting it into one Exercise, or 
distributing it into more, according as 
he shall think will be more profitable 
for him. 


for rightly regulating one s food. 

The first is, that we have to abstain 
from bread less than from other kinds of 
food ; since it neither excites gluttony so 
much, nor equally lays us open to temp 

The second, that we must attend to ab- 

*t. Jtrnattus Lopola. 91 

stincnce more concerning drink than con 
cerning bread; observing carefully what 
measure of drink is profitable, that it may 
always be taken*, and what is hurtful, 
that it may be taken away. 

The third, that abstinence concerns 
chiefly cooked meats, and delicacies ; since 
by them greater occasion is furnished, 
both to the appetite to sin and to the 
enemy to tempt. They must, therefore, 
be moderated, for the sake of avoiding 
excess: and this moderation is of two 
kinds, while we either feed on, and ac 
custom ourselves to, coarser foods, or 
use delicate ones sparingly. 

The fourth is, that the more any one 
withdraws from the diet that suits him 
(avoiding, meanwhile, serious danger of 
ill-bealth), the sooner he will find his true 
measure of food and drink ; both because, 
in this way better disposing himself, and 
more earnestly aiming at perfection, he 
will feel now and then some rays of inward 
knowledge, and consolatory movements 
sent within him from heaven, by means of 
which he will easily be able to distinguish 
the plan of food which is the more advan 
tageous for him; and also because, if any 

* In the Autograph, that it may fo admitted. 

Spiritual ^erctficfi of 

one so abstaining shall have found himself 
too weak in strength to perform conve 
niently the Spiritual Exercises themselves, 
he will thus easily perceive what measure 
of food the necessity of nature requires. 

The fifth, that it is expedient while eat 
ing to imagine that we see our Lord Jesus 
Christ taking food with His disciples, ob 
serving the plan He follows of eating, of 
drinking, of looking, and of speaking ; and 
proposing Him for our imitation. For it 
will come by practice, that, the under 
standing being occupied more with such 
meditation than with bodily food, we shall 
learn the more easily to moderate our diet. 

The sixth, that, for the sake of variety, 
other meditations may be employed while 
taking food ; as concerning the lives of the 
Saints, concerning any pious doctrine, or 
concerning some spiritual business to be 
performed; whence, the mind being thus 
abstracted, the food itself, and the plea 
sure of eating, may be little perceived. 

The seventh, that we must most of all 
take care that our whole mind be not, as 
it were, poured out upon the food we are 
to take, and that we do not take it with 
avidity, or haste; but, having always the 
command over our appetites, let us regu- 

t. JJsnattttfi lopola, 93 

late at once the measure of food, and the 
manner of taking it. 

The eighth is, that it conduces greatly 
towards getting rid of excess in food and 
drink, if before dinner or supper, and at 
whatever hour* no desire of eating is felt, 
by a previous deliberation we determine 
to a certain measure the food we are 
next to take ; which measure, afterwards, 
neither through any avidity of our own, 
nor through any temptation of the enemy, 
let us ever exceed ; but rather, ffor the 
sake of overcoming both, let us even 
withdraw something from it. 

[* In the Autograph, after dinner, or after supper, 
or at another hour when ^c.J 

[t In the Autograph, in order the more to overcome 
every inordinate appetite and temptation of the enemy, if 
he is tempted to eat more, let him eat 

94 Cjje Spiritual (Jfrerciccfi of 



How the Lord Jesus, after His Resurrection, appeared to 

His holy Mother, as it is found below, among the 

Mysteries of the Life of Christ. 

The preparatory prayer as usual. 

The first prelude is taken from the his 
tory, how after the Lord had expired on 
the Cross, *His Body having been buried, 
but still remaining ever united with His 
Divinity, He Himself, in His Soul, this also 
continually united to His Divinity, de 
scended to Hell, and having delivered 
thence the souls of the just, returning to 
the Sepulchre, united His Body anew with 
His Soul, and, rising again, finally appeared 
to His blessed Virgin Mother alive, as we 
should piously and according to proba 
bility believe. 

The second, for the construction of the 
place, will take for contemplation the 

* In the first contemplation of the Fourth Week, in 
the first prelude, His Body having been buried, we have 
from the Autograph His Body having been separated 
from His Soul; for that word (sepulto) is not there, and 
does not agree with the rest. 

lopola* 95 

situation of the sepulchre, and the dwell 
ing of the blessed Virgin ; the form, parts, 
and remaining arrangement of which, as 
the little cell and the oratory, we shall go 
particularly over. 

The third will contain the grace to be 
asked for, which is, that we may parti 
cipate in the boundless joy of Christ and 
of His Mother. 

The first, second, and third points will 
be the same here as have been set forth 
above in the contemplation of the Supper, 
that is, to consider the persons, words, 

And the fourth will be, to observe *how 
Christ s Divinity, hidden at the time of 
His Passion and Death, shews Itself in 
His Resurrection, and thenceforth shines 
out in so many miracles. 

The fifth, to consider how promptly 
and abundantly Our Lord performed the 
oifice of consoling His own, comparing 
it with the consolation which may be 
given by any most friendly person. 

One or more colloquies are to be made 

* In the fourth point, how Christ s Divinity, hidden 
at the time of His Passion and Death, we have in the 
Autograph how Christ s Divinity, Which at the time of 
His Passion, seemed to be hidden, &c. 

96 CUfjc Spiritual CjreawcB of 

according to the subject matter, and the 
contemplation terminated with Pater 

It must be noted, moreover, that in 
the following Contemplations or Exercises, 
all the Mysteries of the Resurrection, 
Ascension, and those which are interme 
diate, will have to be gone over in order, 
the same forms and methods being ob 
served throughout; as was done througli 
that whole Week in which we contem 
plated the Mysteries of the Passion ; and 
after the method and example of this first 
meditation concerning Our Lord s Re 
surrection, all the following ones are to 
be formed and regulated, as well in the 
preludes (which, however, must be ac 
commodated to the things) as in the five 
points, and each of the Additions. In 
like manner also we may be directed 
concerning the repetitions and the opera 
tions of the senses, as well as in increas 
ing or diminishing the number of the 
Exercises according to the Mysteries, as 
we have been taught in the aforesaid 
Week of meditating on the Passion of 

Secondly, it must be noted that it suits 
this Week better than the preceding ones, 

3fffnatttt0 lopola* 97 

to make only four Exercises ; the first, as 
soon as we are up in the morning; the 
second, about the time of Mass, or a little 
before dinner, in place of the first repe 
tition ; the third, at the hour of Vespers, 
instead of the second repetition ; the fourth, 
before supper, the office of the senses 
being applied, in order to impress the 
more strongly on the mind the three con 
templations made the same day, those 
parts or places being marked in passing, 
and handled thoroughly, in which we 
have felt more efficacious movements of 
the mind, and a greater spiritual relish. 

Thirdly, that although to him who is 
being exercised a certain number of points, 
as three, or five, is prescribed, he will 
yet be at liberty himself to determine the 
contemplation to a greater or less number 
of points, according as he shall find him 
self best fitted. In which matter it will 
be a great help, before entering upon the 
Exercise, to arrange the points to be 
handled, and determine them by a certain 

Then, fourthly, it must be noted, that 
in this Fourth Week the second, sixth, 
seventh, and tenth Additions ought to be 


98 Cbc Spiritual Artists of 

In the second, that, as soon as I am 
awake, I immediately place before my 
eyes the appointed contemplation, and 
concerning Our Lord s joy with His own 
strive myself also to grow glad. 

In the sixth, that I present to my me 
mory the things which stir up spiritual 
joy, as the thought of Glory. 

In the seventh, that I make use of the 
advantage of light and sky which shall 
offer itself, as in the time of spring*, the 
sight of the green herbs and flowers, or 
the agreeableness of a sunny place ; in the 
winter, the welcome heat of the sun or of 
a fire ; f and so concerning the other suit 
able satisfactions of the body and mind, 
by which I may be able to rejoice together 
with my Creator and Redeemer. 

In the tenth, that, instead of penance, I 
be content with temperance and modera- 

[* The Spanish verano signifies both spring and 
summer, including the whole time from April to October.] 

t In the Autograph in so far as the soul thinks, or 
conjecturally supposes, that they may be able to help her to 
rejoice in her Creator and Redeemer. " Far be from us", says 
Father Rothaan, "a certain other feeling of joy, as though, 
in this last Week of the Exercises, looking forward to rest, 
we rejoiced that the labour of a long journey was now 
drawing to a close !" adding a most pious warning as to 
the great, and not easily reparable, loss which this latter 
too natural feeling often occasions, just at the end of all, 
to those too little on their guard. 


tion of diet, except at the times when 
fasting or abstinence has been appointed 
by the Church, whose precepts we must 
always obey, unless there be a just im 

Intended to excite in us spiritual love. 

In the first place, two things must be 

The first, that love itself turns more on 
deeds than on words. 

The second, that love consists in the 
mutual communication of powers, posses 
sions, and works ; as of knowledge, riches, 
honour, and good of whatever kind. 

The prayer is placed at the beginning 
as usual. 

The first prelude is, to see myself 
standing before the Lord, the Angels, 
and all the Saints, they being propitious 
to me. 

The second, to in treat the grace of 
God, whereby, perceiving the greatness 
of His benefits conferred upon me, I may 
spend my whole self in the love, worship, 
and service of Him. 

Let the first point be, to recall to me 
mory the benefits of Creation and Redemp- 

100 (ZF&e Spiritual (Amiens of 

tion : in like manner to recount particular 
or private gifts, and to weigh over with 
the most inward affection, how much our 
most benignant Lord has done and borne 
for my sake; how much He has given 
me from His treasures; and that accord 
ing to His own divine decree and good 
pleasure, He desires to give me Himself, 
so far as He can. Which things having 
been very well considered, let me turn to 
myself, and examine with myself what rny 
duty is, what it is equitable and just that I 
should offer and present to the Divine 
.Majesty. Certainly it is not doubtful that 
I ought to offer all I have, and myself also, 
with the greatest affection, and with words 
after this, or the like, manner : 

" Receive, Lord, my whole liberty. 
Accept my memory, understanding, and 
whole will. Whatsoever I have, or pos 
sess, Thou hnst given me: this all 1 re 
store to Thee, and to Thy will altogether 
deliver up to be governed. Give me only 
the love of Thee, with Thy grace, and I 
am rich enough, and desire nothing else 

The second will be, to contemplate God 
existing in each of His creatures ; and to 
the elements indeed granting, to be ; but to 

l&t. Jtpiattttfi fcopola* 101 

the plants, by vegetation also to live ; to 
the animals, in addition, to perceive; to 
men, in the last place, to understand also. 
Among whom I too have received all these 
benefits, to be, to live, to perceive, and 
to understand ; and He has been pleased 
to make me a kind of temple of Himself, 
created after His own image and likeness. 
From the admiration of all which things, 
returning into myself, let me do as in the 
first point, or better if- anything better 
shall occur ; which same practice must be 
followed in order in the points which 

The third is, to contemplate the same 
God and Lord working, and in a manner 
labouring, in His creatures, for my sake*; 
inasmuch as He gives and preserves to 
them what they are, have, can, and do. 
All which things, as above, must be turned 
back to the consideration of myself. 

The fourth, to behold how all gifts and 
good things come down from heaven, 
such as are power, justice, goodness, 
knowledge, and every other human per 
fection, circumscribed by certain deter 
mined bounds, and from that boundless 

* Add as follows from the Autograph : as in the hea 
vens, the elements, in plants, fruits, and animals. 

102 GT&e Spiritual ftftmtts of 

treasure of all good, are derived as light 
from the sun, and as water from a foun 
tain. I must add, also, the aforesaid turn 
ing back to the consideration of myself. 

A colloquy also will be made at the end, 
to be concluded with Pater noster. 


The first Method of Praying is to be 
drawn from the consideration of the Com 
mandments, of the seven mortal sins, of 
the three powers of the mind, and of the 
five senses ; whence it has less the form 
of prayer, than of a kind of Spiritual Ex 
ercise, by which both the soul is helped, 
and prayer is rendered more acceptable to 

Before I pray, then, in this manner, 
agreeably with that which is equivalent 
to the third Addition, I shall sit or walk 
a short time (according as I shall sec best 
for the quiet of my soul), reflecting within 
myself, whither I have to go, and what to 
do. This same kind of Addition must be 
used before all the Methods of Prayer. 

The preparatory prayer must contain a 
request for grace, that it may be given me 
to learn whatever I have transgressed 
against the precepts of the Decalogue, and 

dt* Sonatina lopola. 103 

to amend myself for the future, having 
understood them more exactly, and (as is 
reasonable) observed them, to the glory of 
God, and my own salvation, more cau 
tiously than before. 

First, then, I shall examine each com 
mandment in order, taking notice how I 
have kept or violated it ; and concerning 
the sins which occur to my memory I 
shall ask pardon, saying once Pater noster.* 
And, in examining each commandment, 
it will be sufficient that that space of time 
should be employed in which the Lord s 
Prayer might be said three times. 

It must be noted, however, that upon 
a commandment, the transgression of 
which should happen to us more rarely, we 
should have to dwell less ; but the longer 
in proportion as our falls have been the 
more frequent from habit ; and let the 
same thing be done in like manner with 
respect to the mortal sins. 

Having completed the examination of 
all the commandments, after accusing 
myself, and intreating grace to keep them 
more vigilantly for the future, I shall di 
rect a colloquy to God, according to the 
nature of the case. 

Secondly, we shall pursue a similar 

104 C&e Spiritual jrerdfica of 

method of prayer concerning the mortal 
sins, after the Addition, and the prepa 
ratory prayer, in like manner as we did in 
the case of the commandments. For no dif 
ference presents itself between the two, ex 
cept as regards their matter, the command 
ments having to be kept, but the sins to be 
avoided. The other things are the same, 
and the colloquy will be made as before. 

It must be understood that the know 
ledge of sins and vices is assisted by the 
consideration of the contrary acts and 
habits. Wherefore each person must la 
bour, by the grace of God, and by every 
pious exercise, to gain for himself the 
virtues which are opposed to the seven 
deadly sins. 

In the third place, concerning the three 
powers of the mind, there follows the 
same course to be pursued, by means of 
the Addition, the prayer, and the exami 
nation of each, with the colloquy at the 

Fourthly, concerning the five senses of 
the body, the subject matter only being 

Where it must be noted, that if any 
one wish, in the use of his senses, to 
imitate Christ, he ought in the prepara 
tory prayer to commend himself to God 

tttsi iopola. 105 

with this view, and after performing 
the examination of each sens.e, to subjoin 
the Lord s Prayer*; but, if he aim at a 
like imitation of the blessed Virgin Mary, 
let him commend himself to her, that she 
may obtain it from her Son, and, after 
examining each sense, say the Angelic 


By the consideration of the separate words of the prayer. 

The same Addition as above precedes. 

The preparatory prayer will suit the 
person to whom it is directed. 

The second Method of Praying is, to 
kneel or sit (according to the state of the 
body and the devotion of the mind), and 
with the eyes either closed, or fixed down 
to one place, and not moved to arid fro, to 
say the Lord s Prayer from the beginning, 
arid on the first word, that is, on Pater, 
to fix the meditation so long as va 
rious significations, likenesses, spiritual 
tastes, and other devout motions concern 
ing that word shall present themselvesf ; 

[* In the Autograph, " one Ave Maria or one Pater 
nosier"; and for the imitation of Our Lady, "one Ave 
Maria" 1 absolutely.] 

[t The Autograph speaks of finding, expressing thereby 
the application to be used in seeking : see Father 
Rothaan s note.] 

Spiritual (Ejrmtciffi of 

and in like manner we shall do success 
ively with each word of the same or 
another prayer. 

Concerning these things three rules 
must be observed. The first, that on 
such rumination of any prayer we spend 
the space of an hour ; which having been 
completed, let A ve Maria, Credo, Anima 
Gliristi, and Salve Regina, be gone once 
through in the common way, either in the 
mind alone, or with the voice also. 

The second is, that if, while we are 
praying after this method, meditation, and 
at the same time inward delight, flow in 
upon one or two words, the care of going 
through the rest will have to be put off, 
although the whole hour pass by; which 
being gone, let the rest of the prayer be 
said straight on. 

The third, that when it shall thus have 
happened that we have spent the hour on 
one or a few words, the next day, having 
said shortly what has been examined, let 
us go on to the consideration of the fol 
lowing word. 

And after we have sifted the whole of 
the Lord s Prayer in this manner, the 
Angelic Salutation will follow; then an 
other prayer; so that this exercise of 

JLopola. 107 

E raying may proceed without interruption 
the Autograph adds, for some time]. 

Moreover, when we have thus com 
pleted anyone of these prayers, we shall ad 
dress in a few words that person to whom it 
was directed, asking some virtue or grace 
of which we shall have felt ourselves to be 
especially in need. 


*By a certain measuring together of words and times. 

The Addition differs nothing from that 
of the two preceding Methods. 

The preparatory prayer will be made as 
in the second Method. 

This third Method of Praying consists 
in this, that between the several times of 
drawing breath, I pronounce the several 
words of the Lord s or some other prayer, 
considering in the meantime either the 
signification of the word uttered, or the 
dignity of the person to whom the prayer 
is directed, or my own vileriess, or lastly 
the difference between the two. In the 
same way the other words must be pro- 

[* The Spanish Autograph has simply, " por compos" 
(by measure) ; an expression which applies both to other 
kinds of measure, and also more especially to that of 
music, poetry, and rhythm generally.] 

108 ffr&e Spiritual decertifies of 

ceeded with. One must add, also, the 

E rayers above-mentioned, Ave, Credo, &c. 
the Autograph adds, in the usual way]. 

Two rules which apply to this matter. 
The first that, having finished the Lord s 
Prayer according to this Method of Pray 
ing, on other days or hours we take the 
Angelic Salutation, to be gone through 
with a similar interval of respirations, to 
gether with the other prayers, to be said 
in the usual way. 

The second, that he who wishes to ex 
ercise this Method of Praying for a longer 
time, apply to it all the aforesaid prayers, 
or parts of them, and observe similar in 
terstices of breathings and words. 

t. Sffnatttts lovola. 109 


IT must be noted, in the first place, that 
all those words of the following Mysteries 
which are inclosed in parentheses are taken 
from the Gospels themselves ; the rest not. 
Moreover, that in each Mystery there are 
laid down always, or generally, three 
points, *in order that the contemplation 
may be the more easy, being the more 


As in Luke i. 

First, how the Angel Gabriel, saluting 
the blessed Virgin, announced to her the 
Conception of the Divine Word. ( The 
Angel, having come in to her, said: Hail, 
full of grace, c. Behold, thou shalt con 
ceive in thy womb, and shalt bring forth 
a Son, &c.) 

[* In the Autograph, in order to meditate and con 
template on them with greater facility .] 

110 C&e Spiritual Cjrmwe* of 

Secondly, the Angel confirms what he 
had foretold, by adducing an example 
from the wonderful conception of John 
the Baptist. (And behold, Elizabeth thy 
kinswoman, she also hath conceived a son 
in her old age, &c.) 

Thirdly the holy Virgin answered the 
Angel: (Behold, the handmaid of the 
Lord: be it done unto me according to 
thy word.) 


As we have it in the first chapter of St. Luke. 

First, how Mary visited Elizabeth, and 
St. John, who was in his mother s womb, 
perceived the salutation, and leapt for joy. 
( When Elizabeth heard the salutation of 
Mary, the infant leapt in her womb : and 
Elizabeth was filled with the Holy Ghost; 
and she cried out with a loud voice, and 
said: Blessed art thou among women, 
and blessed is the fruit of thy womb.) 

Secondly, the Blessed Virgin broke forth 
for joy into this canticle : ( My soul doth 
magnify the Lord, &c. ) 

Thirdly, (And Mary abode with, her 
about three months, and returned to her 
own house.) 

S>t. 3g;natttt0 Loyola. 1 1 1 


First, blessed Mary goes with Joseph 
her betrothed from Nazareth to Beth 
lehem. (And Joseph also went up from 
Galilee, &c. into Bethlehem, c. to be 
enrolled* with Mary his betrothed wife, 
being with child.) 

Secondly, (She brought forth her first 
born Son, and wrapped Him in swad 
dling clothes, and laid Him in the man 

Thirdly, ( There joined the Angel a 
multitude of the heavenly host, praising 
God, and saying : Glory to God on high, 


First, the Nativity of Christ is revealed 
to the Shepherds by an Angel: (7 bring 
you good tidings of great joy, &c. For 
there is born to you this day a SAVIOUR, 

Secondly, the shepherds hasten to Beth 
lehem : (And they came with haste, and 

[* Ut profiteretur. The Autograph has, to profess 
subjection to Ccesar; a sense which is of course involved 
in the other.] 

112 Cl>e Spiritual (Ejcmtscfi of 

found Mary and Joseph, and the Infant 

in the manger.) 

Thirdly, (And the Shepherds returned, 
glorifying and praising God c.) 


First, the Child was circumcised. 

Secondly, ( His Name was called JESUS, 
which He teas called by the Angel before 
He was conceived in the womb.) 

Thirdly, the Child was returned to His 
Mother, who felt with Him for the shed 
ding which she saw of His Blood*. 


First, the three Magian kings came, 
guided by a star, to worship the Child 
Jesus, testifying thus : ( We have seen 
His star in the East, and are come to 
worship Him.) 

Secondly, ( They fell down and wor 
shipped Him ; and, having opened their 
treasures, they presented to Him offer 
ings ; gold, frankincense, and myrrh.) 

Thirdly, ( Having received an answer in 
sleep, that they should not return to Hv- 

[* Autograph -for the Blood which came forth from her 

t. 3fanntttt6 lopola. 113 

rod, they went back into their own coun 
try another way.) 


First, they brought [Autograph, bring] 
the child into the Temple, that they might 
present Him [Autograph, that He may 
be presented] to God as the first-born, 
offering [Autograph, and offer] for Him 
the accustomed offering, (a pair of turtle 
doves, or two young pigeons.) 

Secondly, Simeon, coming at the same 
time into the Temple, (took Him into his 
arms, and blessed God, and said : Now dost 
Thou dismiss Thy servant, Lord, &c. ) 

Thirdly, Anna (came up and gave 
thanks to the Lord, and spoke of Him to 
all that looked for the redemption of Is 
rael. ) 


First, Herod, desiring to kill the infant 
Jesus, had the Innocents killed, Joseph 
having been warned beforehand by an 
Angel that he should fly into Egypt: 
(Arise and take the Child and His Mo 
ther, and fly into Egypt.) 

Secondly, Joseph hastened his journey 

114 CJje Spiritual (Eperctfiefi of 

towards Egypt : ( Who rose &c. by night, 
and departed into Egypt.) 

Thirdly, (And was there until the death 
of Herod.) 


First, Joseph is admonished by an 
Angel to return into the land of Israel : 
(Arise and take the Child and His Mo 
ther, and go into the land of Israel.) 

Secondly, ( Who arose &c., and came 
hi to the land of Israel.) 

Thirdly, because Archelaus, the son of 
Herod, was reigning in Judaea, he with 
drew into Nazareth. 


First, how He was subject and obedient 
to His parents. 

[* " Why our holy Father", observes Father Rothaan, 
" wished this Mystery to come first, although in respect 
" of time the next following claims the earlier place, 
"see the Preamble (Prelude) for the consideration of 
" states, in the third day of the Second Week, and what 
" is there observed, note 33." (The note referred to is 
as follows : " In this place our holy Father inverts for 
a while the order of the Gospel history. Why so ? See 
note 34, which follows presently." The passage referred 
to in note 34 is the following : " Our holy Father pur 
posely inverts for a while, in the contemplations of the 
third day, the order of the words of the Gospel, and 

Secondly, He (advanced in wisdom and 
age, and in grace &c.) 

Thirdly, He appears to have practised 
the trade of a carpenter, since St. Mark 
says, Chap. vi. : (Is not this the carpen 
ter ?)* 


First, Jesus, when twelve years old, 
went from Nazareth to Jerusalem. 

Secondly, He remained there without 
His Parents knowing it. 

also of the history itself ; not indeed with any prejudice 
to the historical truth, but appositely for his aim. For 
he has proposed to our contemplation the obedience of 
the Child Jesus, as the model of the common life : He 
was subject to them. Then, His remaining in the Temple, 
when He had left His parents, as the model of the 
more perfect life : The Child Jesus remained in Jeru 
salem") " Moreover", continues Father Rothaan, " this 
" Mystery is found in the Spanish Autograph divided into 
" two points, in the way we give it here." (He speaks of 
his own second column, literally translated from the Au 
tograph : see our next note.) In the ancient Manuscript 
Version it is divided into three points, in just the same 
order as in the Common Version : and this latter division 
was undoubtedly approved by our holy Father, whence 
also it has been received into the editions of the Spanish 
text generally (passim) ; besides that the matter itself 
" of the first point, as here set forth, contains two distinct 
" points : I. He u-as obedient: 2. He advanced. ] 

[* In the Autograph : First, He was obedient to His 
parents. (He advanced in wisdom and age, and in grace.) 
Secondly, He appears to have practised the trade of a car 
penter, as St. Mark shews (implies) Chap. vi. (Is not this 
the carpenter ?)~\ 

116 &[)c Spiritual 6j:mi6eg of 

Thirdly, after three days, they found 
Him in the Temple, sitting among the 
doctors ; and when they asked the cause 
of the delay [Autograph, where He had 
been], He answered: (Knew ye not that 
I must be about my Father s business?) 


First, bidding farewell to His Mother, 
He svent forth from Nazareth to the river 
Jordan, where John was then baptizing. 

Secondly, He was baptized by John, 
who excused himself at first, on account 
of unworthiness, but was compelled by 
these words: (Suffer it now; for so it 
becometh us to fulfil all justice.) 

Thirdly, the Holy Ghost came down 
upon Him, and a voice from Heaven, tes 
tifying thus : ( This is My beloved Son, in 
Whom I am well pleased.) 


First, after His baptism Christ with 
drew into the desert, and there fasted 
forty days and as many nights. 

Secondly, He was thrice tempted by 
the enemy. ( The tempter came and said 
to Him: If Thou art the Son of God, 

&* Sfaiwto* lopola. 117 

command that these stones be made bread. 
Cast Thyself down. All these things will 
I give Thee, if Thou wilt fall down and 
worship me.) 

Thirdly, (Angers came and ministered 
to Him.) 


First, St. Peter and St. Andrew appear 
to have been called thrice ; the first time, 
only to some knowledge of Christ, John i. ; 
then *to a mere temporary following, with 
the intention of returning again to their 
fishing, Luke v. ; lastly, to a perpetual 
following, Matt. iv. and Mark i. 

Secondly, He called the sons of Zebedee, 
Matt. iv. ; and Philip, John i. ; and Mat 
thew, Matt. ix. 

Thirdly, the others were called, although 
concerning the calling of some, and the 
order of these callings, mention is not ex 
pressly made in the Gospel. 

Three things are here to be considered. f 

First, how the Apostles were men of a 
low [Autograph, of an unlettered and 
low] rank. 

[* In the Autograph to a following of some sort, with 
the purpose of returning to possess the things they had left.] 

[T In the Autograph And moreover three other things 
are to be considered.] 

118 &&e Spiritual exercises of 

Secondly, to how great a dignity, and 
how sweetly, they were called. 

Thirdly, with what gifts of grace they 
were exalted above all the Fathers of the 
Old, and Saints of the New, Testament. 


First, Christ was invited with His Dis 
ciples to the Marriage. 

Secondly, His Mother informed Him, 
(Tlwy have no wine.) And to the ser 
vants she said : ( Whatsoever He shall say 
to you, do). 

Thirdly, the Lord turned water into 
wine; (and manifested His glory, and 
His Disciples believed in Him.) 


First, He made a scourge of cords, and 
drove out of the Temple those that were 
buying arid selling there. 

Secondly, He (poured out the money 
of the changers, and overturned their 
tables.) [Autograph, He overturned the 

[* These words, " the first time", are not in the Auto 

lopola. 119 

tables and money of the rich* changers 
who were in the Temple.] 

Thirdly, to them [to the poor] that 
were selling doves He said mildly : ( Take 
these things hence, and make not f/ie 
house of My Father a house of traffic.) 


First, to His beloved Disciples, fChrist 
set forth eight kinds of Beatitude. Blessed 
are the poor in spirit : The meek : They 
that mourn : They that hunger and thirst 
after righteousness: The merciful: The 
pure of heart: The peace-makers: They 
that suffer persecution. 

Secondly, He exhorts them to use 
rightly the gifts or talents which they 
had received. (In like manner let your 
light shine before men, in order that they 
may see your good works, and glorify 
your Father Who is in Heaven.) 

Thirdly, He shews that He is not 

[* " Most worthy of observation are these epithets rich 
and poor, which our holy Father, meditating both piously 
and probably, has added, and by which he suggests the 
reason why our Lord dealt differently ; with the former 
severely, with the latter more mildly." Father Rothaan.] 

[t In the Autograph He speaks separately concerning 
eight Beatitudes.] 

120 <T(, C Spiritual ejrmwc* of 

breaking the Law, but fulfilling it ; by ex 
plaining the commandments concerning 
the avoidance of man-slaying, stealing, 
fornication, perjury; and also concerning 
the loving of our enemies. (But I say 
unto you : Love your enemies, do good 
to them that hate you.) 


First, while Christ was sleeping, there 
arose a vehement tempest in the sea. 

Secondly, the Disciples, being alarmed, 
roused Him from His sleep, and He re 
proved them for the weakness of their 
faith : ( Why are ye fearful, ye of little 

Thirdly, He commanded the winds and 
the sea to be still, and there was imme 
diately a calm : whence the men wonder 
ing said : ( What manner of person is 
this, that [or for] the ivinds and the sea 
obey Him ?) 


First, while Christ was still on the 
mountain, having ordered His Disciples 
to go away into a bark, and (having dis- 


missed the multitude, He went up into a 
mountain alone to pray.) 

Secondly, when the bark was being 
tossed in the night, He came thither Him 
self walking on the waters ; whence the 
Disciples, being terrified, thought it was 
a phantom. 

Thirdly, after He had said to them, (It is 
1 : fear ye not), St. Peter asked leave to 
come [Autography came at His bidding] 
to Him, and, while walking on the waters, 
on account of the rising of fear began 
to sink, *and Our Lord, having rebuked 
him for his little faith, entered the bark, 
and the wind ceased. 


First, Jesus having called His Disci 
ples [Autograph, His beloved Disciples] 
together, gave them power to cast out 
devils from men [Autograph, from men s 
bodies], and to heal every kind of disease. 

Secondly, He taught them [Autograph, 
He instructed them concerning] prudence 
and patience. (Behold, 1 send you forth 

[* In the Autograph but Christ our Lord delivered 
him, and rebuked him for his little faith; and afterwards, 
He entering into the baric, the wind ceased.] 

122 &&C ^pinttial er.mt6Ci$ of 

as sheep in the midst of wolves : be ye 
therefore wise as serpents, and simple as 

Thirdly, He sets forth the manner of 
their going : ( Without price have you re 
ceived, without price give. Possess not* 
gold nor silver.) Moreover He expressed 
the matter of their preaching : (And as 
ye go, preach, saying : The kingdom of 
heaven is at hand.) 


First, while Christ lay at table in the 
house of a Pharisee, there entered a wo 
man who had been a sinner in the city, 
(f whether she was Mary Magdalen, the 
sister of Martha, or another), bringing 
an alabaster vessel, full of ointment. 

Secondly, standing behind, she began 
to wash His feet [Autograph, standing 
behind the Lord, about His feet, she began 
to wash them] with her tears, and wipe 
them with her hair, to kiss them, and to 

[* In the Greek, as the Latin might also be rendered, 
Gain not. ] 

[t " Concerning the Conversion of Magdalen. In the 
Autograph we do not find these words : whether she was 
Mary Magdalen, the sister of Martha, or another" Father 
Rothaan. The whole paragraph is as follows in the Au 
tograph : First, Magdalen enters where Christ our Lord 
is lying at table in the house of a Pharisee, bearing an 
alabaster vessel full of ointment. 

lopola* 123 

anoint them. [Autograph, and wiped them 
with the hairs of her head, and kissed 
them, and anointed them with the un 

Thirdly, when she is accused by the 
Pharisee, Christ defends her and says 
to him: (Many sins are forgiven her, 
because she hath loved much.) And to 
herself afterwards : ( Thy faith hath saved 
thee : go in peace. ) 


First, the Disciples asked Jesus to 
dismiss the multitudes that were present. 
[In the Autograph, the Disciples, when 
it was now growing late, ask Christ to 
dismiss the multitude of men that was 
with Him.] 

Secondly, He ordered the loaves they 
had to be brought, and having blessed 
and broken them, gave them to the Dis 
ciples to be set before the multitudes of 
men, they having been commanded to lie 
down in order. [In the Autograph, Christ 
our Lord ordered them (the Disciples) to 
bring Him loaves, and commanded that 
they (the multitudes) should lie down in 
order, and blessed, and broke, and gave 

124 C&e Spiritual dfrmtfitfl of 

to His Disciples those loaves, and the 
Disciples to the multitude.] 

Thirdly, they ate and were satisfied, 
and there remained twelve baskets. 


First, Jesus having taken [Autograph, 
taken as companions] His three dearest 
Disciples, Peter, John, and James, (was 
transfigured before them, and His face 
shone as the sun, and His garments be 
came white as snow.) 

Secondly, He talked with Moses and 

Thirdly, Peter asking [Autograph, say 
ing] that three tabernacles should be 
made there, there sounded a voice from 
Heaven : ( This is my beloved Son, &c. 
hear ye Him.) Whence the Disciples, 
being terrified, fell on their faces ; when 
Christ touched them and said : (Arise, and 
fear not : &c. Tell the vision to no one 
until the Son of Man rise again from the 


First, Christ, having received a message 
concerning the sickness of Lazarus, re- 

Ssnatittfi Lapola* 125 

mains [Autograph, Martha and Mary 
inform Christ our Lord concerning the 
sickness of Lazarus, which when He knew, 
He remained] in the same place two days, 
that the miracle might be the more evi 

Secondly, before raising the dead man, 
He stirs up the faith of both sisters [Au 
tograph, He demands of both the one and 
the other that they believe, saying:] (1 
am the Resurrection and the Life: he 
that believeth in Me, although he be 
dead, shall live.) 

Thirdly, after He had wept, and prayed, 
He raised him : and the manner of raising 
which He used was a command : (Laza 
rus, come forth.) 


First, Christ was supping [Autograph, 
is supping] in the house of Simon the 
leper, and Lazarus likewise. 

Secondly, Mary poured out [Auto 
graph, pours out] unguent on His head. 

Thirdly, Judas finds fault : ( Wherefore 

this waste?) But Christ again defends 

Magdalen : ( Why trouble ye this woman ? 

for she hath wrought a good work upon 


126 Cfte ^ptritttal demises of 


First, our Lord ordered a she-ass and 
foal to be brought : (Loose them and bring 
them to Me; and if any one shall say any 
thing to you, say ye that the Lord hath 
need of these, and immediately he will let 
them go.) 

Secondly, He mounted the she-ass, 
covered with the Apostles clothes. 

Thirdly, the people who were about to 
receive Him, strewed the way with their 
clothes, and with the branches of trees: 
(Hosanna to the Son of David : blessed 
is He that cometh in the Name of the 
Lord: Hosanna in the highest.) 


First, He was teaching daily in the 

Secondly, when His preaching was over, 
*He returned into Bethania, no one re 
ceiving Him in Jerusalem. 


First, He ate the Paschal lamb with 

[* In the Autograph, because there was no one to re 
ceive Him in Jerusalem, He returned to BethaniaJ] 

>t* Sonatina lopola. 127 

the Disciples [Autograph, with His 
twelve Apostles] and forewarned them 
concerning His impending death: (Amen 
I soy unto you, that one of you will be 
tray Me.) 

Secondly, He washed their feet, not ex 
cepting those of Judas himself; beginning 
with Peter, who, considering the majesty 
of Christ [Autograph, of the Lord] 
and his own unworthiness [Autograph, 
worthlessness], opposed it: [Autograph, 
not being willing to consent, said :] (Lord, 
dost Thou wash my feet ?) not knowing 
that an example of humility was being 
given by Our Lord, Who made this de 
claration afterwards : (/ have given you 
an example, that as I have done, so ye 
also may do.) 

Thirdly, He instituted the most holy 
Sacrament [Autograph, Sacrifice] of the 
Eucharist, for a sign of the highest love, 
[Autograph, for the greatest sign of His 
love,] using these words : ( Take ye and 
eat: &c.) And when supper was finished, 
Judas went out to sell Him. [Autograph, 
to sell Christ our Lord.] 

128 dTfjc pinttial <5j:crriflicfi of 





First, supper having been finished, and 
a hymn sung, Christ went to the Mount 
of Olives with His eleven Disciples, who 
were full of fear; and commanded eight 
to remain at Gethsemane: (Sit ye here, 
irliile I go yonder and pray.) 

Secondly, having taken with Him three, 
Peter, James, and John, He prayed three 
times, saying: (My Father, if it be pos 
sible, let this cup pass from Me : never 
theless, not as I will, but as Thou wilt.) 
And being in an agony, He prayed at the 
greater length. 

Thirdly, when He had suffered Himself 
to be reduced to so great fear, that He said, 
(My Soul is sorrowful even unto death), 
He even sweated blood abundantly, as 
Luke testifies, [Autograph, Thirdly, He 
came into so great fear, that He said, 
(My Soul is sorrowful even unto death), 
and sweated blood so abundantly that 

[* " From the Svpper to the Garden inclusively. Ob 
serve that in all these Mysteries of Our Lord s Passion, 
the holy Father points out particularly the journeys of 
our suffering Lord ; which we have also noted above, in 
the Third Week, Day 2, note 4." Father Rothaan.} 

S snattttis Lopolcu 129 

Luke says,] (His sweat became as drops 
of blood running down upon the ground.) 
Whence we may conjecture that His 
clothes had already been made wet with 
blood. [Autograph, which implies that 
His clothes were already full of blood.] 






First, our Lord permitted Himself to 
be betrayed by a kiss [Autograph, to be 
kissed] by Judas, and to be apprehended 
like a robber: (Are ye come out as to a 
robber, with swords and clubs, to appre 
hend Me ?* I sat daily with you teaching 
in the Temple, and ye laid no hold upon 
Me.) And Himself asking, (Whom seek 
ye?) all His enemies fell to the ground. 

Secondly, when Peter smote the servant 
of the High Priest, He said to Him, (Put 
thy sword into the scabbard) and healed the 
servant [Autograph,ihe servant s wound]. 

Thirdly, having been taken, and having 

[* In the Autograph, as in the text of the Vulgate, 
Ye are come out to apprehend Me: without the inter 


130 dTfje g>pintttnl exercises of 

been forsaken by His Disciples, He is 
dragged to the house of Annas, where, by 
Peter, who had followed Him a little 
after [Autograph, at a distance], He was 
denied once, and from a servant who 
found fault with Him, (Answerest Thou 
the High Priest thus ?), He received a slap. 




First, Christ is led away bound from 
Annas into the house of Caiphas, where 
Peter again denied Him twice, and, when 
our Lord looked upon him, (went out and 
wept bitterly). 

Secondly, He remained bound all that 

Thirdly, the officers who surrounded 
Him mocked Him, tormented Him (vexa- 
bant), and, having covered His face, struck 
Him with their fists, questioning Him : 
(Prophesy unto us, Christ, who is he 
that smote Thee) : and in other ways 
blasphemed Him. [Autograph, Thirdly, 
moreover, they who held Him a prisoner, 
mocked Him, and struck Him, and co 
vered His face, and gave Him slaps and 

loola. 131 

questioned Him: (Prophesy unto us, who 
is he that smote Thee f) : and uttered 
similar blasphemies against Him.]* 




First, Christ is then dragged to Pilate, 
and before Him caluinniously accused by 
the Jews: [Autograph, First, the whole 
multitude of the Jews drag Him to Pi 
late, and accuse Him before him, saying : 
( We have found This Man perverting our 
nation, and forbidding to give tribute to 
Secondly, when Pilate had once and 

[* " Then spat they in His face, and struck Him with 
their fists, and smote His face with the palms of their 
hands ; saying : Prophesy unto us, Christ, who is he 
that smote Thee V Matthew xxvi. 67, 68. " And some 
began to spit upon Him, and to cover His face, and to 
strike Him with their fists, and to say to Him : Prophesy : 
and the servants smote Him with the palms of their 
hands." Mark xiv. 65. " And the men who had Him in 
custody mocked Him, and beat Him ; and having blind 
folded Him, struck Him on the face, and questioned Him, 
saying: Prophesy, Who is he that smote /Thee? and 
uttered many other blasphemies against Him." Luke 
xxii. 63, 64, 65.] 

[t Instead of Matthew xxvi, it should have been Mat 
thew xxvii.] 

132 C&e Spiritual 6rmtfife6 of 

again examined Him, he pronounced: 
(I find no cause in Him) [John xviii, 
38; and xix, 4 and 6]. 

Thirdly, the Jews cried out that they 
chose rather the liberation of Barabbas 
the robber than that of Christ Jesus: 
(Not this man, but Barabbas.) [Auto 
graph, Thirdly, Barabbas the robber was 
preferred to Him : ( They all cried out, 
saying: Not this man, but Barabbas.)] 




First, Pilate sent Christ on to Herod, 
thinking that He was a Galilean. [Auto 
graph, Pilate sent Jesus (as) a Galilean 
to Herod the Tetrarch of Galilee.] 

Secondly, when Herod asked Him 
questions out of curiosity, He answered 
nothing at all, although He was being 
vehemently accused by the Jews. [Auto 
graph, Secondly, Herod, being curious, 
questioned Him much, and He answered 
him nothing, although the Scribes and 
Priests kept on accusing Him.] 

Thirdly, He was set at nought by 
Herod with his army, and clothed in a 
white garment. 

ms JLopoIa* 133 




First, Herod sent Christ back to Pilate, 
and [Autograph, for which reason] they 
two, having previously been enemies, were 
that same day reconciled to one another. 

Secondly, Pilate commanded Jesus to 
be beaten with scourges; the soldiers 
crowned Him with thorns, and put upon 
Him a purple robe : then, mocking Him, 
said, (Hail, King of the Jews /) ; and at 
the same time struck Him with their 
hands [John xix. 3]. [Autograph, Se 
condly, Pilate took Jesus, and scourged 
Him; arid the soldiers made a crown of 
thorns, and put it upon His head; and 
clothed Him with a purple robe, and came 
to Him, and said, (Hail, King of the 
Jews /) ; and gave Him slaps.] 

Thirdly, [Autograph, Thirdly, he led 
Him forth to the sight of all:] (Jesus 
therefore came forth, bearing the crown 
of thorns, and the purple robe), and Pi 
late says to them (Behold, the Man!) ; 
but the Chief Priests cried out together 
[Autograph, and when they had seen 
Him, the Chief Priests cried out, saying] : 
( Crucify, crucify Him!) 

134 GT&e Spiritual &rmi&t& of 






First, Pilate, sitting at the tribunal, 
judged Christ, and delivered Him up to 
be crucified, [Autograph, Pilate, sitting 
as judge, delivered Jesus up to them, that 
they might crucify Him,] after that the 
Jews, denying that He was their King, 
had said : ( We have no king" but Ccesar.) 

Secondly, Christ carried His Cross, 
until, on account of the failure of His 
strength, a certain Simon of Gyrene was 
compelled to bear it after Him. 

Thirdly, He was crucified between two 
[Autograph, in the midst of two] thieves* 
with this title set over Him : (Jesus of 
Nazareth, the King of the Jews.} 


First, He endured blasphemies on the 
Cross: (Ah, Thou that destroy est the 

[* The term thieves, as retained by custom in the case 
of the malefactors crucified with Our Lord, must not be 
understood in its modern restricted sense, but as equiva 
lent to robbers, Lat. " latrones , Gr. " 

lopola. 135 

Temple of God, &c. come down from the 
Cross. ) And His garments were divided. 
Secondly, Our Lord uttered seven words 
[speeches] on the Cross : Praying, that is 
to say, for those who were crucifying 
Him; Pardoning the thief; Commending 
His Mother and St. John to one an 
other; Exclaiming (7 thirst), when they 
gave Him vinegar to drink; And then 
saying that He was forsaken by His 
Father ; Afterwards (It is accomplished} ; 
and lastly, (Father, into Thy hands 1 
commend My spirit /) 

Thirdly, the Sun was darkened as He 
expired, and the rocks were rent; the se 
pulchres also were opened, and the veil 
of the Temple was rent from the top to 
the bottom ; and His side, pierced with a 
lance, poured forth water and blood. 



First, He spoke seven words (speeches) 
on the Cross : He prayed for those who 

[* " Concerning the Mysteries on the Cross. A great dif 
ference is here observed between the Common Version 
and the Autograph. In the former, the order of the his 
tory is pretty nearly preserved ; in the Autograph, on the 
contrary, the historical succession being left, the order of 
the things to be contemplated seems accommodated to the 
consideration, so often commended by our holy Father, 
of the persons, words, actions, and, in the Third Week, of 

136 CI)e Spiritual (^vcrciscfis of 

were crucifying Him; He pardoned the 
thief; He commended St. John to His 
Mother, and His Mother to St. John ; He 
said with a loud voice (/ thirst), and 
they gave Him gall and vinegar ; He said 
that He was forsaken ; He said (It is ac 
complished) ; He said (Father, into Thy 
hands I commend My spirit!) 

Secondly, the Sun was darkened, the 
rocks were rent, the sepulchres were 
opened, the veil of the Temple was divided 
into two parts from the top to the bottom. 

Thirdly, they blaspheme Him, saying, 
(Ah Thou that destroy est the Temple of 
God, come down from the Cross) ; His 
garments were divided; His side, pierced 
with a lance, flowed with water and blood.] 




First, Our Lord, when dead, was taken 

the things which Our Lord is suffering. In the first 
point we see the person, Jesus, and His words, and the 
things which He is suffering. In the second, the inani 
mate things ; which, being personified as it were, grieve 
after their manner, and speak their grief. In the third, 
the enemies of Christ, and their words and actions. 
Moreover, this contemplation ends, as is fitting, in the 
opened side of Christ, and rests in the transfixed heart of 
Jesus." Father RothaanJ] 


from the Cross by Joseph and Nicodemus, 
in the very sight of His most afflicted 
Mother. [Autograph, First, He was put 
down from the Cross by Joseph and Ni 
codemus, in the sight of His afflicted 

Secondly, His Body* was taken to the 
Sepulchre, anointed, and enclosed. 

Thirdly, guards were set in that place. 


First, Our Lord appeared to His Mo 
ther, after He was risen again, since the 
Scripture says that He appeared to many 
[Autograph, to so many others]. For 
although it does not express her by name, 
yet it leaves us this for certain, speaking as 
to persons having understanding; lest 
otherwise we justly hear that saying: 
Are ye also yet without understanding ?) 


First, Mary Magdalen, Mary [the mo 
ther] of James, and Salome set out [Au 
tograph, go] very early in the morning 

[* That the Common Latin Version should be thus 
pointed and rendered, is clear from the Autograph.] 

138 fZT&r Spiritual Cfrmtecs of 

to the monument, saying : ( Who shall 
roll us back the stone from the door of 
the Sepulchre F) 

Secondly, they saw the stone rolled 
back, and heard the Angel s speech: [Au 
tograph, they see the stone rolled back, 
and the Angel, who says :] ( Ye seek Jesus 
of Nazareth Who was crucified. He is 
risen : He is not here.) 

Thirdly, He appeared to Mary Magda 
len, who, when the others had left [Auto 
graph, when the other women were gone], 
had remained by the Sepulchre. 


First, the women returned from the 
monument with fear and at the same 
time great joy, that they might tell the 
Disciples all that they had understood 
concerning our Lord s Resurrection. 

[Autograph, First, those Maries go 
out from the monument with fear and 
great joy, wishing to announce to the 
Disciples our Lord s Resurrection.] 

Secondly, Christ appearing to them on 
the way, said (All Hail!); and they, 
approaching, and having prostrated them 
selves at His feet, worshipped Him. 

Thirdly, Our Lord addressed them: 

lopola. 139 

(Fear ye not. Go tell my brethren, that 
they depart into Galilee : there shall they 
see Me. ) 


First, Peter, having heard from the 
women of the Resurrection of Christ, ran 
[Autogfdpk, went quickly] to the monu 

Secondly, having gone in, he saw only 
the linen clothes in which the Body had 
been bound up. [Autograph, in which 
the Body of Christ our Lord had been 
bound up, and nothing -else.] 

Thirdly, to Peter reflecting on these 
things Christ shewed Himself, whence 
the Apostles said : ( The Lord is risen 
indeed, and hath appeared to Simon.) 


First, He then appeared [Autograph, 
He appears] to two Disciples, when they 
were going to Emmaus, and were talking 
about Himself. 

Secondly, He reproved their incredu 
lity, and expounded to them the Myste 
ries of the Passion and Resurrection: 
[Autograph^ He reproved them, shewing 

140 (ZTfje Spiritual (Zfrerctacfli of 

by the Scriptures, that Christ had to die 
and to rise again :] ( senseless and slow 
of heart to believe in all the things which 
the Prophets have spoken. Was it not 
necessary that Christ should suffer these 
things, and so enter into His glory?) 

Thirdly, having been asked, He re 
mained with them, and having broken 
bread to them, disappeared; and*they re 
turned and told the Apostles how they 
had seen Him, and in the breaking of 
bread known Him. 

[Thirdly, being intreated by them, He 
remains there, and was with them, until 
in the act by which He gave them Com 
munion He disappeared; and they re 
turned and told the Disciples how they had 
known Him in Communion. Autograph]. 


First, all the Disciples except Thomas 
were assembled at home for fear of the 

Secondly, Christ, having come in, when 
the doors were shut, (stood in the midst, 
and said to them: Peace be unto you /) 
[Autograph, Secondly, Jesus appeared to 
them when the doors were shut; and, 
standing in the midst of them, says: 
(Peace be unto you /)] 

Lopola. 141 

Thirdly, He gave them the Holy Ghost, 
and said : (Receive the Holy Ghost : whose 
sins ye forgive, they are forgiven to 
them, &c.) 


First, St. Thomas, not having been 
present at the aforesaid [Autograph, in 
credulous, because he had been absent 
from the preceding] appearance, had pro 
tested, ( Unless I see &c. I will not believe. ) 

Secondly, after eight days, Christ again 
offered Himself to their sight [Autograph, 
Jesus appears to them], the doors being 
shut, and said [Autograph, says] to 
Thomas (Put in thy finger hither, and 
see &c. and be not incredulous, but be 

Thirdly, Thomas exclaimed : [Auto 
graph, believed, saying :] (My Lord and 
my God /) : to whom Christ replied : 
(Blessed are they that have not seen, and 
have believed.) 


First, Jesus again manifested Himself 
[Autograph, Jesus appears] to seven of 
His Disciples when fishing ; who when 

142 C&c Spiritual eternise* of 

they had taken nothing all night, and had 
cast the net at His command (were no 
longer able to draw it up, because of the 
multitude of the fishes.) 

Secondly, John, knowing Him by this 
miracle, said to Peter (It is the Lord) : 
and he, immediately casting Himself into 
the sea, came to Christ. 

Thirdly, He gave them to eat bread and 
fish [Autograph^ *part of a broiled fish 
and a honey- comb] : afterwards to Peter, 
having thrice asked Him whether he 
loved Him, He commended His fold: 
(Feed my sheep.) 


First, the Disciples, in pursuance of 
our Lord s command, depart to Mount 

Secondly, He appeared, and said to 
them : (All power is given Me in heaven, 
and on earth.) 

Thirdly, sending them to preach through 

[* " Part of a broiled fish and a honeycomb. So in the 
Autograph. Since in the Gospel (Luke xxiv, 42) these 
words relate to another appearance, we must say, that to 
our holy Father, writing these points from memory, that 
has happened which every one knows has not unfrequently 
happened even to the holy Fathers, when citing from 
memory the words of Scripture." Father fiothaan.] 

t. %snn.tin& lopola* 143 

the whole world, He thus charged them : 
(Go ye therefore and teach all nations, 
baptizing them in the Name of the 
Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy 


(After that He appeared to more than 
five hundred brethren at once.) 


( After that He appeared to James. ) 


That Christ appeared also to Joseph of 
Arimathaea, is read in some holy writings 
and is probable, and a pious subject of 
meditation. [Autograph, He appeared 
to Joseph of Arimathoaa, as it is pious 
to suppose in meditation, and as we read 
in the lives of the Saints.] 


He appeared also to blessed Paul after 
His Ascension. (And last of all He ap 
peared to me, as to the one horn out of 
due time.) He appeared also to the Fa- 

144 @r()e Spiritual (Kferdsefi of 

thers in Limbus, in His Soul, and after 
they were brought out thence. [Auto 
graph, He appeared also in His Soul to 
the holy Fathers of Limbus, and after 
He had brought (them) out (thence).] 

Finally, having resumed His Body, lie 
appeared often (passim) to the Disciples, 
and was frequently with them. [Auto 
graph, and had assumed His body again, 
He appeared many times to the Disciples, 
and was with them (or conversed with 
them, conversabatur cum illis).~\ 


After Christ had no\v many times 
shewn Himself alive to His Disciples 
during forty days (by many proofs, &c. 
speaking to them concerning the king 
dom of God), He sent them to Jerusalem, 
that they might there await the Holy 
Ghost Who had been promised them. 
[Autograph, First, after He had appeared 
to the Apostles, during the space of forty 
days, making (affording) many proofs 
and signs, and speaking concerning the 
kingdom of God, He commanded them 
that they should await in Jerusalem the 
Holy Ghost Who had been promised 

Sfffnatros Inpoln, 145 

Secondly, He led them out to the Mount 
of Olives. (And while they beheld, He 
was lifted up, and a cloud received Him 
out of their sight.) 

Thirdly, to them looking up into heaven, 
those two men who stood by them in 
white garments, whom we believe to 
have been Angels, said : [Autograph, 
Thirdly, they looking into heaven, the 
Angels say to them :] ( Ye men of Galilee, 
why stand ye looking into heaven f This 
Jesus, Who hath been taken up from you 
into heaven, shall so come as ye have seen 
Him going into heaven.) 

146 ST&e ^pirttiml (BrmiBrs of 


For the discerning of the motions of the soul which dif 
ferent spirits excite [ A utograph, for feeling and recog 
nizing in some measure the various motions which are 
excited in the mind], in order that the good ones alone 
may be admitted, and the evil ones driven .away. It 
must be observed, that they suit more especially the 
Exercises of the First Week. 

The first rule is, that to those who easily 
sin mortally, and add sin to sin, our enemy 
is wont usually to present the allure 
ments of the flesh and senses [Autograph, 
apparent delights, making them imagine 
sensual delectations and pleasures], that 
he may keep them full of sins, and ever 
increase the amount. But the good spirit, 
on the contrary, pricks continually their 
conscience, and by the office of remorse 
and reason deters them from sinning. 

The second, that to others, who take 
anxious pains to purify themselves from 
their faults and sins, and advance daily 
more and more in the desire of obey 
ing God, the malignant spirit suggests 
feelings of molestation, scruples, sad- 


nesses, false reasonings, and other such 
disturbances, by which to impede that 
advance. Of the good spirit, on the other 
hand, it is the property and custom to 
add courage and strength to those who 

O O 

act rightly, to console them, to call forth 
the tears of devotion, to enlighten the 
mind, and give tranquillity, removing all 
obstacles, in order that they may the 
more easily and cheerfully by good works 
ever advance farther. 

The third, that spiritual consolation, 
properly so called, is then known to be 
present, *when, by a certain internal mo 
tion, the soul burns up with the love of 
her Creator, and can no longer love any 
creature except for His sake. Also when 
there are shedf tears stirring up that 
love, whether they flow from grief con 
cerning sins, or from meditation on the 
Passion of Christ, or from any other 
cause whatsoever, which is rightly ordered 
to the worship and honour of God. 

[* In the Autograph, " when there is excited in the 
soul some interior motion by which she begins to be in 
flamed (Spanish, viene a inflammarse : comes to inflame 
herself) in the love of her Creator and Lord ; and, conse 
quently, when she can love no created thing on the face of 
the earth in itself, but (only) in the Creator of them all."] 

[t The Spanish lanfa (ejicit) expresses the force of the 
tears bursting forth.] 

148 (Tie Spiritual Cjrcrciccfi of 

Lastly, any increase of faith, hope, and 
charity, may be called a consolation : also 
every joy which is wont to stir up the 
soul to the meditation of heavenly things, 
to the desire of salvation, to the posses 
sion of rest and peace with the Lord. 

The fourth, that, on the other hand, 
we should call by the name of spiritual 
desolation, any darkening of the mind, 
disturbance therein, instigation to the 
lowest or earthly things; together with 
every disquietude and agitation, or temp 
tation, which moves to distrust concerning 
salvation, and expels hope and charity; 
whence the soul feels that she is saddened, 
grows lukewarm, becomes torpid, and 
almost despairs of the mercy of God her 
( ivator Himself. [Autograph, when she 
(the soul) finds herself all torpid, luke 
warm, sorrowful, and as it were separated 
from her Creator and Lord]. For as de 
solation is the opposite to consolation, so 
also the thoughts which spring from either 
are altogether contrary to those which 
spring from the other. 

*The fifth, that, in time of desola- 

[* In the Autograph, The ffth, in time of desolation 
one 1 iiust never make a change, but stand firmly and con 
stantly in the purposes and determination in which one 

J>t STgnattttg lopola* 149 

tion, one must not deliberate on anything, 
or make any change concerning one s 
purpose of mind, or state of life, but per 
severe in those things which had been 
settled before, suppose, during the preced 
ing day or hour of consolation. *For as, 
whilst any one enjoys that consolation of 
which we have spoken, he is led, not *by 
his own instinct, but by that of the good 
spirit; so when desolation presents itself 
to him, he is urged on by the evil spirit, 
by whose instigation nothing right is ever 

The sixth, that, although a man affected 
with desolation ought by no means to 
change his former decisions, it will never 
theless be expedient that those things 
should be provided and increased which 
tend to oppose the impulse of desolation ; 
such as are, to be earnest in prayer, with 

was on the day preceding such desolation, or in the deter 
mination in which one was in the preceding consolation; 
thus expressing more clearly, as Father Rothaan ob 
serves, that we must hold fast to what had been prede 
termined, not merely during sensible consolation, but also 
while the mind was at rest.] 

* In the fifth rule concerning the distinguishing of 
spirits, those words, For as, whilst any one, to the end, 
may be better rendered from the Autograph as follows : 
For as in consolation the good spirit more rides and directs 
us, so in desolation does the evil one, by whose instigation 
and counsels we cannot determine anything right. 

150 C&e Spiritual <&?tum& of 

self-examination, and to undertake some 
penance. [Autograph, it is (yet) very pro 
fitable intensely to change ourselves (/. e. 
our mode of action, that we may con 
tend) against the desolation itself, e. g. by 
being more earnest in prayer, in medita 
tion, by examining ourselves much, and 
extending ourselves more (performing 
something more) in some suitable method 
of doing penance.] 

The seventh, that, as long as we are op 
pressed with desolation, we must consider 
that the Lord leaves us to ourselves for 
the time, for the sake of probation, in 
order that we may learn to resist even by 
our natural strength the attacks of our 
enemy ; which we are certainly able to do, 
*the Divine help being continually with 
us, although it be then not at all perceived, 
in consequence of the Lord s having with 
drawn the former fervour of charity, [Au 
tograph, his (the person s) much fervour, 
great (sensible) love, and intense grace,] 
leaving nevertheless that grace which may 

* In the seventh rule concerning the distinguishing of 
spirits, about the middle, the Divine help being con 
tinually with us, although it be then not at all perceived. 
In the Autograph it is as follows : the Divine help beina 
with us; which ever remains, although it be then not at all 

tufi lopola. 151 

suffice for performing good works and 
gaining eternal salvation. 

The eighth, that he who is under the 
attack of temptation will be wonderfully 
helped by the endeavour of maintaining 
patience, this being the virtue which is 
especially opposed to, and diametrically 
resists, vexations of this kind. He must 
also call in hope, and the thought of the 
consolation which will soon be at hand : 
if especially* the force of the desolation be 
broken by the holy endeavours pointed 
out in the sixth rule. 

The ninth, that the chief causes of de 
solation are three. The first, because, on 
account of our lukewarmness, and want 
of pains-taking in spiritual practices or ex 
ercises, we are deservedly deprived of the 
Divine consolation. The second, in order 
that we may be proved, what kind of per 
sons we are [Autograph, what we are 
worth], and how we spend ourselves for 
[Autograph, how far we go in] the ser 
vice and honour of God without the pre 
sent pay, as it were, of consolations and 
spiritual gifts. [Autograph, without so 
great pay of consolations and great (spe- 

[* " The especially which we find in the Common Ver 
sion, is not in the Autograph. 1 Father llothaan.] 

1.32 CIjc ^ptrittml eprrcwctf of 

cial) graces.] The third, in order that 
we may be quite sure, [Autograph, that 
He ma} 7 give us true knowledge arid per 
ception, whereby we may intimately feel,] 
that it is not of our own strength to ac 
quire or retain the fervour of devotion, 
the vehemence of love, the abundance of 
tears, or any other inward consolation ; 
but that all these tilings are the gratuitous 
gifts of God, which if we claim to our 
selves as our own, we shall incur the charge 
of pride and vain-glory, not without se 
riously endangering our salvation. \_Auto- 
graph, but that the whole is the gift and 
grace of our Lord God ; and lest we make 
our nest in a place which is not our own, 
by lifting up our understanding to any 
pride or vain-glory, by attributing devo 
tion, or the other parts of spiritual con 
solation, to ourselves.] 

The tenth, that he who is enjoying con 
solation must consider for the future, how 
he will be able to bear himself when de 
solation afterwards occurs; in order that 
even from that time he may gain spirit 
and strength of mind to repel its attack. 
[Autograph^ drawing new strength for 
that time.] 

The eleventh, that he who is in this same 
case, when consolation flows in, depress 


and humble himself as much as possible, 
thinking with himself, how weak and 
cowardly he will appear, when attacked by 
desolation, unless by the help of the Divine 

frace and consolation he be quickly raised. 
Autograph, how little his strength will be 
in the time of desolation, without that so 
great grace and consolation.] He on the 
other hand who is troubled by desolation, 
ought to think that with the grace of God 
he can do very much, and will easily con 
quer all his enemies, provided he place 
his hope in the strength of God, and con 
firm his mind. {Autograph^ that he can 
do much with grace, which is sufficient for 
resisting all his enemies, taking strength 
in his Creator and Lord.] 

The twelfth, that our enemy resembles 
the nature and habit of a woman, as to 
weakness of strength and obstinacy of 
spirit. [Autograph, in as much as he is 
weak in power and strong in will (malice 
and rage).] For as a woman contending 
with a man, if she sees him resist with an 
erect and firm countenance, immediately 
loses courage and turns her back; but if 
she perceives him to be timid and cowardly, 
rises to the utmost audacity, and attacks 
him fiercely [Autograph, the anger, re 
venge, and fierceness of the woman is very 

154 C&e Spiritual (Bperttaefi of 

great, and indeed without measure (ex 
treme)] } in like manner is the demon ac 
customed to lose altogether his spirit and 
strength, [the Autograph adds: his temp 
tations turning to flight,] as often as he 
sees the spiritual athlete with a fearless 
heart and lofty forehead resist his tempta 
tions: [Autograph, when he who is exer 
cising himself in spiritual things present 
a bold front to the temptations of the 
enemy, doing what is diametrically oppo 
site (that is, the exact contrary of that 
which he by his temptations sets before 
him)*;] but if he is alarmed when the first 
attacks are to be endured, and gives way 
as it were to despair, [Autograph, And on 
the contrary, if he who is exercising him 
self begins to fear, and to lose courage in 
bearing temptations,] there is then no 
beast on the earth more infuriated than 
that enemy, more fierce, and more perti 
nacious against man, to fulfil, to our de- 

[* " Here the ancient MS. Version inserts : therefore 
does Paul (James) say : Resist the devil, and he will fly 
from you (iv, 7). And also at the end of this twelfth 
rule : therefore does Job say rightly of the demon : There 
is no power on earth that can be compared to h im (xli, 24). 
Which additions, although not found in the Spanish Au 
tograph, were yet admitted by our holy Father in that 
Version which he was himself accustomed to use. And 
in truth these texts eminently confirm the doctrine con~ 
tained in this rule." Father fiothaan.] 

tttfi; Lopola* 155 

struction, the desire of his malignant and 
obstinate mind. [Autograph, there is no 
beast so infuriated on the face of the 
earth, as is the enemy of human nature in 
following up his perverse intention, with 
so great (the greatest) malice.] 

The thirteenth, that the same enemy of 
ours follows the plan of any most wicked 
lover, [the Autograph adds: in as much as 
he wishes to be secret and not be disco 
vered. For as (such) a vain (false) man,] 
who, desiring to seduce [Autograph, who, 
speaking with an evil purpose, is enticing 
(tempting)] the daughter of virtuous 
parents, or the wife of some good man, 
takes the utmost care that his words 
and counsels may be secret, and fears and 
dislikes nothing more than if the daughter 
makes them known to her father, or the 
wife to her husband, as knowing that in 
this case it is all over with his desires 
and attempts ; in the same way, the devil 
studiously endeavours, that the soul which 
he desires to circumvent and ruin, should 
keep his deceitful suggestions secret ; [Au 
tograph, when the enemy of human na 
ture suggests to a just soul his deceits and 
persuasions, he wishes and desires that 
they may be received and kept in secret ;] 
but is in the highest degree displeased, 

156 (ZTjie Spiritual jrerriecfi of 

and most grievously tormented, if his at 
tempts be made known to any one, either 
hearing confession, or being a spiritual 
man [the Autograph adds : who may 
know his deceits and malice] ; because he 
understands that, such being the case, he 
altogether fails in them. 

The fourteenth, that the adversary is 
accustomed also to imitate some leader of 
war*, who desiring to take and plunder a 
citadel which he has besieged, having first 
ascertained the nature and defence of the 
place, attacks the weaker part. For so he 
too goes round the soul, and searches out 
skilfully what virtues, moral (that is to 
say) or theological, she is either defended 
by or destitute of; [Autograph, going 
round searches out on every side all our 
virtues, theological, cardinal, and moral;] 
and at that particular part in us which he 
has seen beforehand to be less strengthened 
and guarded than the rest, [Autograph, 
and at that part in which he finds us 
weaker, and more wanting for our eternal 
salvation], bringing up all his engines, he 
rushes on, and hopes to overthrow us. 

[* The Spanish Autograph has caudillo, which is used 
also of a captain of robbers. So also in the meditation 
on the two Standards, Week ii, Day 4.] 

m0 lopola. 157 


Useful for the fuller discerning of spirits, an 1 suitable 
more especially for the Second Week. 

The first is, that it is the property of 
God, and of every good Angel, to pour 
into the mind true spiritual joy, which 
they cause by taking away all that sad 
ness arid disturbance of mind which the 
demon has thrown in ; whereas he, on the 
contrary, is accustomed by certain sophis 
tical arguments bearing before them the 
appearance of truth [Autogragh^ by bring 
ing forward apparent reasons, subtleties, 
and perpetual fallacies], to attack that joy 
found in the soul. 

The second, it belongs to God alone to 
console the soul without any preceding 
cause of consolation, it being peculiar to 
the Creator *to enter His creature, and 
turn, draw, and change it altogether to 
the love of Himself. And we then say 
that no cause precedes, when neither to 
our senses, nor to our understanding, nor 

[* In the Autograph : " to go in and out (of the soul), 
to make a movement in her, drawing her altogether to 
the love of His Divine Majesty." The going in and out 
expresses " that the Creator uses the soul which is given 
up to Him, as His own home ; which likeness is also em 
ployed below in Rule 7." (Father Rothaan.) ] 

158 Cfc Spiritual 6j:mtecfi of 

to our will there is presented anything 
which can of itself be the cause of such 
consolation. [Autograph, I say, without 
cause, (that is) without any previous per 
ception or knowledge of any object from 
which such consolation may come (to the 
soul) by her (own) acts of understanding 
and will.] 

The third, when a cause of consolation 
has preceded, as well the bad as the good 
Angel may be its author; but they aim at 
contrary ends ; the good, that the soul may 
advance farther in the knowledge and 
practice of good ; the bad, that she may do 
badly and perish. 

The fourth, it is the custom of the ma 
lignant spirit, to transfigure himself into 
an Angel of light, and, having known the 
pious desires of the soul, first to second 
them, then soon after to entice her to his 
own perverse wishes. For he puts on 
the appearance at first of following up and 
encouraging the person s good and holy 
thoughts ; and then, gradually drawing 
him into the secret nooses of his deceits, 
ensnares him. [Autograph, for he is wont 
to suggest good and holy thoughts, con 
formably to (the disposition of) such a 
just soul ; and then by degrees labours 

t. 3fg;nattufi lopola, 159 

to arrive at his end, by drawing (drawing 
in) the soul into his secret deceits, and 
perverse intentions.]* 

The fifth, our thoughts must be dili 
gently and accurately examined as to their 
beginning, middle, and end; arid if these 
three be right [Autograph, all good, tend 
ing to what is altogether good], it is a 
sign of the good Angel, suggesting those 
thoughts ; but if in the course of the ideas 
anything is presented, or follows, which 
is bad of itself, or calls away from good, 
or impels to a less good than the soul in 
searching before had determined to follow, 
or produces lassitude in [Autograph, 
weakens] the soul, vexes, and disturbs 
[Autograph, or disquiets, or disturbs] 
her, taking away the peace and tranquil 
lity which she had before, it will then be 
an evident sign, that the author of such 

[* "This fourth rule," observes Father Rothaan, "is 
of the utmost importance, as well as that which follows 
next, the fifth, in order that we may not be deceived by 
the appearance of good, and drawn away from the true 
good." After speaking of the false appearances by 
which the enemy of souls so often deceives those who 
are aiming at good, he adds : " whose deceits, however, 
the truly humble, and, especially, the obedient, soul will 
easily avoid. For the enemy acting from without can 
do but little, unless a man s own self-love conspire to 
wards the same ruin."] 

160 (E&e Spiritual e^crrtsffi of 

thought is the malignant spirit, as being 
always opposed to our advantage. [Auto- 
irrapli, the enemy of our advancement, and 
of our everlasting salvation*.] 

The sixth, as often as it happens that 
the enemy is discovered [Autograph^ dis 
covered and recognized] by his serpentine 
tail, that is, the evil end [Autograph] and 
evil end], which he always seeks to in 
sinuate into us, it is then a great help, 
[Autograph^ it is profitable for him who 
has been tempted by him,] to go over the 
whole series of ideas, and mark what web 
of good thought he at first wove before 
him, and how he endeavoured gradually to 
remove [Autograph, to make him descend 
from (lose)] the preceding sweetness of 
spiritual taste, and to infuse his own venom 
[Autograph, until he brought him down 
to his own degraded intention], in order 
that his deceits, known [Autogrdph,li\\(n\i\ 
and taken notice of] by means of an expe 
rience of this kind, may the more easily be 
guarded against for the future. 

The seventh, into the minds of those 
who are advancing in the blessing of sal- 

[* "And of our everlasting salvation. In the Auto 
graph is pointed out the danger of losing, not merely 
greater perfection, but also everlasting salvation, when a 
man does not stand on his guard against the illusions of 
the demon." Father Rotkaan. ] 

ttifi lopola. 161 

vation, the two spirits infuse themselves in 
different ways; the good one gently, pla 
cidly, and sweetly, like a drop of water 
entering into a sponge; but the evil one 
roughly, unplacidly, and violently, with a 
kind of noise, as a shower falling down on 
a rock: [Autograph, and the evil (Angel) 
touches (it) sharply, and with noise and 
disturbance, as when a drop of water falls 
down on a rock :] but to those who go on 
daily from bad to worse, the direct oppo 
site happens. Of which difference the 
reason is, the proportion in which the dis 
position of the soul itself is like or unlike to 
either Angel. For if either spirit finds 
her contrary to him, he joins himself to 
her* with a noise and pushing which may 
easily be perceived ; [Autograph, for when 
it is contrary, they (the spirits) enter 
with a noise and with sensations, so that 
it [their coming) may easily be perceived ;] 
but if conformable, he enters quietly, as 
into his own house with the door open. 

The eighth, as often as without any 
previous cause, consolation is present to 

[* Joins Jtimselfto her. This, like the entering which 
the Autograph has, must be understood not of the con 
sent of tho soul, but merely of a movement in her : see 
Father llothaan s note.] 


162 c&c Spiritual &ftm&tG of 

us, although, it being sent from God, 
there can be under it [Autograph, there is 
in it], as has been said above, no deceit, we 
ought nevertheless attentively and care 
fully to distinguish the time when the con 
solation is present from that which follows 
next, [Allograph, yet the spiritual person 
to whom God gives such consolation, ought 
with much vigilance and attention to con 
sider and distinguish the time which be 
longs properly to such actual consolation 
from that which follows,] in which the soul 
is still fervent, and feels the remains of the 
Divine favour lately received. For in 
this latter time it often happens that, 
either from one s own habit, course of 
thoughts, and judgment, or from the sug 
gestion of the good or evil spirit, we 
feel or resolve on things which, not pro 
ceeding immediately from God, have need 
of diligent examination, before being as 
sented to or put in practice. [Autograph, 
because in this second time she often 
forms, by means of her own course of 
thoughts arising out of her habits and out 
of the consequences of the conceptions and 
judgments she has had (or, out of the con 
sequences of the conceptions she has had 
and out of her own judgments), or by 

loola. 163 

means of the good or evil spirit, various 
purposes and counsels which are not given 
immediately from our Lord God, and 
which therefore must be very well ex 
amined before they receive entire assent, 
and have effect given to them.] 


to be observed in distributing alms. 

[Autograph, In the Ministry of Distributing Alms the 

following rules ought to be observed.] 

The first, if it pleases me to distribute 
anything to persons connected with me by 
birth or friendship, the four rules must 
be attended to which we have partly men 
tioned in speaking of elections. And 
the first of these is, that my affection to 
wards such persons proceed directly from 
the love of God, which love I certainly 
ought to feel within myself to be the root 
and cause of every affection of mine to 
wards my relations and friends, and to do 
my best that in this present business that 
reason may shine forth as the chief. [Au 
tograph, The first is, that that love which 
moves me, and makes me give alms, de 
scend from above, from the love of our 
Lord God, so that I feel first within my 
self, that the love which I have more or 

164 (T&e Spiritual 6prrctfiC6 of 

less towards such persons is for God s 
sake; and that in the cause for which I 
love them more, God may shine forth.] 

The second*, that I consider, if any 
other person, for whom I should wish a 
similar state or degree of perfection with 
myself, were to consult me concerning an 
affair of that kind, what plan of making 
his distribution I should lay down for 
him. This rule then it is right that I also 
should use. 

The third, that I consider, if the end 
of my life were now at hand, what I should 

* In the second rule for the distribution of alms. 
The second that I consider <tc. to the end. This rule is 
a.- follows in the Autograph. The second that 1 consider, 
if there were any other person altogether unknown to me, 
for whom nevertheless I should desire every degree of per 
fection for this ministry/ and his own state, that whatever 
plan I should yish him to follow in this distribution, for the 
greater glory of God and perfection of his own soul, that 
very same I so adopt myself. [Literally translated, the 
Autograph stands thus : "The second: I desire to set be 
fore myself some man whom I have never seen nor 
known, and wishing for (or, and it being understood that I 
wish for) his entire perfection in the ministry and state 
which he has ; in whatever way I should wish him to 
keep the medium in his method of distributing (alms), 
to the greater glory of our Lord God, and the greater 
perfection of his own soul, in that very way doing myself 
neither more nor less, I shall observe myself the rule I 
should desire for the other, and (which) I judge to be 
such (as is fitting for the greater glory of God, and per 
fection of the soul.)"] 

3Tffnattufl! Lopola* 165 

most wish to have done in this matter. 
[Autograph, the form and measure, which 
I should then wish to have observed 
in the office of my administration]. So 
therefore let me determine to do now. 

The fourth, that I look forward in like 
manner what I should prefer in the day 
of judgment to have done concerning 
these things : which let me now also with 
out hesitation choose in preference. [Au 
tograph, The fourth : considering in what 
mind I shall be in the day of judgment, 
to consider well how I shall then wish to 
have performed the office of this ministry 
committed to me ; and to observe now the 
same rule which I should then wish to 
have observed.] 

The fifth, that as often as I feel my 
affection to incline more to persons con 
nected with me by some human bond, I 
carefully weigh the aforesaid four rules, 
and according to them examine the affec 
tion ; not thinking about giving the alms, 
or making the distribution, until I have 
removed from my mind whatever there is 
in it not right. [Autograph, The fifth, 
when any one feels himself affected and 
inclined towards any persons to whom he 
wishes to distribute, let him stop himself 
(or wait), and study well the aforesaid 

166 Cftc Spiritual jrerdfiefi of 

four rules, examining and proving his af 
fection by their help; and not give the 
alms until in conformity with them he 
have entirely removed and cast away his 
inordinate affection.] 

The sixth, although the property de 
dicated to the service of God and the use 
of the Church [Autograph, the goods of 
our Lord God] may be taken without 
fault for distribution by him who has been 
called [Autograph, called by our God and 
Lord] to that ministry; yet since in de 
termining the just portion for his own 
expenses, a scruple concerning excess is 
wont to happen to very many, [Autograph, 
yet in (determining) the quantity which 
he should take and apply to himself of 
those things which he has that he may 
give to others, there is a doubt (fear) con 
cerning excess,] it is worth while to order 
rightly the state of one s life according 
to the rules above. [Autograph,be there 
fore (who is in a ministry of that kind) 
may reform himself in his life and state 
by means of the aforesaid rules.] 

The seventh, for the said reasons and 
many others, in administering those 
things which concern one s own person, 
condition, house, or family, it is best and 
safest for every one who undertakes the 


care of distribution to withdraw as much 
as he can from his own advantage, and 
conform himself closely to the example of 
our Lord Jesus Christ the highest Pontiff; 
[Autograph^ it is always the better and 
safer, the more (one) restrains one s self 
and diminishes (for one s self), and the 
more nearly one comes up to our highest 
Pontiff, our example and rule, Who is 
Christ our Lord ;] since in the third Coun 
cil of Carthage, too, in which St. Augustine 
was present, it was decreed, [Autograph, 
according to which doctrine the third 
Council of Carthage, at which St. Augus 
tine was present, decrees and orders,] that 
the furniture of a Bishop ought to be [Au 
tograph, should be] cheap and poor. This 
same forethought is fitting in every state 
or kind of life, the persons however and 
states being taken into consideration [the 
Autograph adds: and proportion being 
observed] ; as in matrimony we have the 
example of St. Joachim and St. Anne, 
who, dividing yearly their property into 
three parts, gave away one to the poor, 
dedicated another to the service of the 
Temple and the worship of God, and re 
served but the third for their own needs. 
[Autograph, for their own support and 
that of their own family] . 

168 <fje spiritual e^ercisea of 

Certain things worthy of observation concerning the 
distinguishing of the scruples which the demon raises 
in the mind. [Autograph, For the perception and distin 
guishing of the scruples and persuasions of our enemy, 
the following notes are of use J] 

The first, it is commonly called a 
scruple, when from our own exercise of 
free will and our own judgment, we con 
clude something to be a sin which is not 
one ; as if any one perceiving that in pass 
ing he had trodden upon a cross formed 
with straw upon the ground, should 
accuse himself of it as a crime. [Auto 
graph, judge of his own judgment that lie 
has sinned] . This however is not properly 
a scruple, but should rather be called an 
erroneous judgment. 

The second, a scruple properly so called, 
is, whenever after treading on such a 
cross, or after any thought, speech, or 
deed, there arises to us from without a 
suspicion of having committed sin :* and 
although from the other side it comes 
into our minds that we have not sinned 
at all, we yet feel some ambiguity and 
perturbation of mind, which the demon 

[* So the Douay edition of 1586 : Father Rothaan s 
edition (that of 1838 at least) has a full stop, but his 
literal version of the Autograph only a comma.] 

lopola. 169 

thrusts in. [Autograph, I yet feel pertur 
bation herein, namely, in so far as 1 doubt 
(or, fear concerning sin), and in so far as 
I do not doubt : this is properly a scruple, 
and a temptation which the enemy throws 

The third : the former kind of scruple, 
improperly so called, is to be altogether 
abhorred as full of error [Autograph^ 
because it is all error]. But the latter, 
continuing for some time (especially while 
the ordering of a better life is of recent 
standing), helps in no small degree the 
soul which is occupied on spiritual things 
[Autograph, which is giving itself to spi 
ritual exercises], since it wonderfully pu 
rifies it, and leads it away from every 
semblance of sin, [Autograph, nay rather 
it greatly purifies and cleanses such a 
soul, separating it very much from every 
appearance of sin,] according to that 
expression of St. Gregory : It is the part 
of good minds there to recognise fault, 
where there is no fault. 

The fourth, the enemy is accustomed 
to observe cunningly, of what kind the 
conscience of each soul is, whether more 
obtuse, or more delicate: [Autograph, 

170 {f)e ^ptrttttal d^erdaea of 

the enemy observes very much whether 
the soul is obtuse or delicate ;] and if he 
finds any one delicate, he strives to ren 
der her much more delicate still, and to 
reduce her to a certain extreme degree of 
anxiety, in order that, having thus miser 
ably disturbed, he may at last cast her 
down from spiritual advancement. [Auto- 
grnpli, and if she is delicate, he does his 
best to render her more delicate to the 
last degree, in order that he may the more 
easily disturb her, and put her to con 
fusion and flight* :] For instance, if he 
knows a soul that consents to no sin, 
mortal or venial, nay more, cannot endure 
so much as the shadow (so to speak) 
of voluntary sin; then, since he cannot 
throw before her any real ground of 
sin [Autograph, make her fall into any 
thing which has the appearance of sin], 
he labours to make her think that that 
is sin to her which in reality is not, [Auto 
graph, he does his best that she herself 
may judge that there is sin where there 

[* " Profliget (confundat). The Spanish verb desba- 
ratar is a term of war, and expresses that confusion and 
perturbation which is wont to happen when an army 
is routed by a victorious enemy." Father Rothaan.~] 


is no sin,] as concerning some word or 
sudden little thought [Autograph, as in 
some word, or very little thought] . The 
obtuse soul or conscience, he studies on 
the contrary to render more obtuse, that 
she who before neglected venial sins, may 
now care little for mortal ones also, and 
daily less regard them. [Autograph) and 
if she cared (for sins) in some degree be 
fore, (he will do his best) that she may 
now care (for them) much less, or not at 

The fifth, in order that the soul may 
be able to advance in the spiritual way, 
she must [Autograph, the soul that de 
sires to advance in the spiritual life must 
always] tend towards the opposite of that 
side to which the enemy is endeavouring 
to draw her [Autograph^ to the contrary 
way to that which the enemy goes] ; so 
that if he is striving to make the consci 
ence more easy, she may make it more 
strict ; or relax it, on the contrary, if the 
demon wishes to make it too strict. For 
so it Avill come to pass, that, avoiding the 
dangers of each extreme, the soul herself 
[or, that soul] will remain constantly in a 
certain middle, quiet, and secure state. 
[Autograph, in like manner, if the enemy 

172 (<rf)c g>pintual (Exercises of 

endeavours to render her more delicate 
in order that he may bring her into an 
extreme, let the soul endeavour solidly to 
establish herself in the middle*, in order 
to render herself altogether quiet.] 

The sixth, as often as a man [ Auto 
graph, such a good soul] wishes to say 
or do anything which is not contrary to 
the usage of the Church, or the mind of 
our ancestors, and which tends to the 
glory of God, and there meets him a sug 
gestion [Autograph, and there comes to 
(upon) her some thought or temptation] 
from without, dissuading from saying or 
doing the thing so purposed, adducing 
some coloured reason [Autograph, ad 
ducing to her apparent reasons], either 
of vain glory or of any other evil, then 
the mind must be lifted up to God; [Au 
tograph, then she ought to lift her mind 
up to her Creator and Lord ;] and if it 

[* Father Rothaan observes on the importance of this 
expression as compared with that of relaxing, which we 
have in the Common Version, remarking that " he who 
relaxes his conscience, when the demon seeks to make 
it too strict, if in relaxing it he diminish his strictness 
beyond the middle point, incurs the most serious danger 
of falling into that very evil into which in the end the 
enemy is endeavouring by means of those very difficulties 
to draw him ; which also the sad experience of very 
many scrupulous persons proves."] 

msf Ioj>ola. 173 

appear that such word or deed tends to 
His glory, or at all events is not contrary 
thereto, he must go on in opposition to 
such thought [Autograph, she ought to 
act (proceed) diametrically (on) against 
that temptation], and in answer to what 
the enemy objects, say with St. Bernard : 
Neither for thee did I begin, nor for thee 
will I finish. 

In order that we may think with the Orthodox Church. 
[Autograph, In order to think with truth as we ought, 
in the Church Militant, let the following rules be ob 

The first, removing all judgment of 
one s own, one must always keep one s 
mind prepared and ready to obey the true 
Spouse of Christ [Autograph, Christ our 
Lord], *and our holy Mother, which is 
the Orthodox, Catholic, and Hierarchical 

The second, it is proper to commend 
the confession which is accustomed to be 
made of sins to the Priest, and the re- 

[* In the Autograph, " which is our holy Mother the 
Hierarchical Church." On which Father Rothaan ob 
serves : " The ancient MS. Version, which, as we have 
often said, our holy Father used, has as follows : and this 
is the hob/ Mother the Hierarchical Church which is that 
of Rome."] 

174 (f)e spiritual Amiens of 

ceiving of the Eucharist at least once a 
year, it being more commendable to re 
ceive the same Sacrament [or, the Sacra 
ment Itself (i. e. to receive It actually, 
not in spirit only)] every eighth day [/. e. 
once a week], or at least once in each 
month, [ Autograph, and much more every 
month, and much better every eighth day,] 
observing at the same time the due con 

The third, to commend to Christ s 
faithful people, that they frequently and 
devoutly hear the holy rite or sacrifice 
of the Mass [Autograph, the frequent 
hearing of Mass] ; also the saying of 
the Church hymns, the psalms, and long 
prayers, either within the Churches or 
outside of them : also to approve the hours 
marked out for the divine offices and for 
prayers of whatever kind, as are what we 
call the Canonical Hours. 

The fourth, to praise very much the 
Orders of Religion, and set celibacy or 
virginity before marriage. [Autograph, 
The fourth, to praise very much the 
Orders of Religion, virginity, and conti 
nence, and not (praise) marriage so much 
as any one of those (aforesaid states).] 

The fifth, to approve the vows of 

t. Jtptatfofi! Lopota* 175 

Religious concerning the observance of 
chastity, poverty, and perpetual obedience, 
with the other works of perfection and 
supererogation [Autograph, and of the 
other perfections of supererogation] . And 
here it must be noted in passing, that 
since a vow relates to those things which 
lead [Autograph, approach (attain)] 
more nearly to the perfection of the 
Christian life ; concerning other things, 
which rather turn away [Autograph, 
which depart (recede)] from the same 
perfection [or, from perfection itself], as 
concerning traffic, or matrimony, [the 
Autograph adds : &c.] a vow is never to 
be made. 

The sixth, to praise moreover relics, 
the veneration and invocation of Saints : 
[Autograph, to praise the relics of the 
Saints, giving to the one (the relics) vene 
ration, and addressing prayer to the 
other (the Saints) :] also the stations, and 
pious pilgrimages, indulgences, jubilees, 
the candles accustomed to be lighted in 
the Churches, and the other helps of this 
kind to our piety and devotion. [Auto- 
graph, jubilees, crusades, and the candles 
accustomed to be lighted in the Churches.] 

The seventh, to praise the use of ab- 

176 dTfje Spiritual Crmtafs of 

stinence and fasts [Autograph, the sta 
tutes (of the Church) concerning fasts 
and abstinences], as those of Lent, of the 
Ember Days, of the Vigils, of the Friday, 
of the Saturday, and of others undertaken 
out of devotion : also voluntary afflictions 
of one s self, which we call penances, not 
merely internal, but external also. \_Auto- 
g-j fijt/t, of the Friday and Saturday: also 
penances, not internal only, but external 

The eighth, to praise moreover the con 
struction of Churches, and (or, and their) 
ornaments ; also images, as to be venerated 
with the fullest right, for the sake of what 
they represent. [Autograph, also images, 
and to venerate them according to what 
they represent.] 

The ninth, to uphold especially all the 
precepts of the Church, and not impugn 
them in any manner; but, on the con 
trary, defend them promptly, with reasons 
drawn from all sources, against those who 
do impugn them. [A utograph, The ninth : 
to praise, in fine, all the precepts of the 
Church, having a mind ready to search 
for reasons wherewith to defend, and by 
no means wherewith to impugn, her (or, 

J^t. JJcpxatmfi ILopcia. 177 

The tenth, also to approve zealously 
the decrees, mandates, traditions, rites, 
and manners (lives*) of the Fathers or 
Superiors. And although there be not 
found everywhere that integrity of man 
ners (life) which there ought to be, yet if 
any one, either in a public sermon, or in 
intercourse with the people, speaks against 
them, he rather causes mischief and scan 
dal than furnishes any remedy or advan 
tage, the only consequence being, the 
exasperation and murmuring of the people 
against their Rulers and Pastors. AVe 
must abstain therefore from invectives of 
this kind. Yet, as (on the one hand) it 
is mischievous to attack and revile to the 
people those in authority when absent; so, 
on the other hand, to admonish privately 
those who, if they will, can remedy this 
evil, seems worth the while. 

^Autograph, The tenth: we ought to 
be more ready to approve and praise as 
well the statutes and recommendations as 
the manners (lives) of our Superiors (than 
to reprove them) ; because, although some 
times they may not, or might not, be such, 

[* i. e. So far as we conscientiously can. The Auto 
graph, however (see the next paragraph), removes all 


178 C&c Spiritual (j:mtfiea of 

(/. e. as are worthy of praise, yet) to speak 
against them, either in public preaching, 
or in speaking before persons of the com 
mon people, would cause murmurings and 
scandals rather than good; and so the 
people would be angry against their 
Superiors, either spiritual or temporal. 
Therefore (or, yet), as (on the one hand) 
it is mischievous to speak ill to the people 
concerning Superiors who are absent, so 
(on the other) it may be useful to speak 
concerning (their) evil manners (lives) to 
those same persons who can remedy them.] 
The eleventh, to put the highest value 
on [Autograph, to praise] the sacred 
teaching, both the Positive arid the Scho 
lastic, as they are commonly called. For 
as it was the object of the ancient holy 
Doctors, [Autograph , it is more the pro 
perty of the Positive Doctors, as] Jerom, 
Augustin, Gregory, and the like, to stir 
up men s minds to embrace the love and 
worship of God [Autograph, to stir up 
the affections to love in alJ things (en 
tirely) our Lord God, and serve Him] ; 
so it is the peculiarity of Blessed Thomas 
[Autograph, it is more the property of 
the Scholastic ones, as Blessed Thomas], 
Bonaventura, the Master of the Sentences, 

tt0 Lopola, 179 

and other more modern Divines [Auto 
graph, &c.], to lay down and define more 
exactly the things necessary for salvation, 
according to what is fitting for their own 
times and for posterity, for the confutation 
of the errors of heresies. [Autograph, 
to define or explain the things necessary 
for everlasting salvation in a manner 
suitable to our times, and for the better 
attacking and exposing of all errors, and 
all fallacies :] Since the Doctors of this 
kind, being later in date, are not merely 
endowed with the understanding of the 
Sacred Scripture, and assisted by the 
writings of the old authors ; but also, 
with the influx of the Divine light, [Au 
tograph, being themselves illuminated, 
and taught by the Divine power,] use 
happily, for the help of our salvation, the 
determinations of Councils, the decrees, 
and various constitutions of holy Church. 
The twelfth, it is a thing to be blamed 
and avoided to compare men who are still 
living on the earth (however worthy of 
praise) with the Saints and Blessed, say 
ing : [Autograph, we ought to take notice 
in making comparisons of those who are 
still alive with ourselves (qui adhuc vivi- 
mus, i. e. nobiscum vivunt), with the 

180 (Lfjc ^ptcttttal 6j;crcffiffi of 

Blessed who are departed this life, that 
no small amount of error is committed in 
this matter : for instance, when it is said :] 
This man is more learned than St. Au- 
gustin : That man is another St. Francis : 
He is equal to St. Paul in holiness, or 
some virtue, he is not inferior, &c. [Au 
tograph, That man knows more than St. 
Augustin ; he is another St. Francis, or 
greater ; he is another St. Paul in virtue, 
holiness, &c.] 

The thirteenth, finally, that we may be 
altogether of the same mind and in con 
formity with the Church herself, if she 
shall have defined anything to be black 
which to our eyes appears to be white, we 
ought in like manner to pronounce it to 
be white. [Autograph, The thirteenth : 
that we may in all things attain the truth 
(that we may not err in anything), we 
ought ever to hold it (as a fixed prin 
ciple), that what I see white, I believe to 
be black, if the Hierarchical Church 
so define it (to be);] For we must un- 
doubtingly believe, that the Spirit of our 
Lord Jesus Christ, and the Spirit of the 
Orthodox Church His Spouse, by Which 
Spirit we are governed and directed to 
salvation is the same; and that the God 

JLopoIa. 181 

Who of old delivered the precepts of the 
Decalogue is the same Who now instructs 
and governs the Hierarchical Church 
[Autograph, our holy Mother the Church.] 

The fourteenth, it must also be borne 
in mind, that although it be most true, 
that no one is saved, but he that is pre 
destinated, \_Autograph, that no one can 
be saved except he have been predesti 
nated, and except he have faith and 
grace,] yet we must speak with circum 
spection concerning this matter, lest per 
chance stretching too far the grace or 
predestination of God, we should seem to 
wish to shut out the force of free will 
and the merits of good works ; or on the 
other hand, attributing to these latter 
more than belongs to them, we derogate 
meanwhile from the former. \_Autograph, 
(yet) we must take very great care in the 
manner of speaking and treating of all 
these things.*] 

The fifteenth, for the like reason we 

[* " Of all these things. There is nothing more in the 
Spanish Autograph. Yet in the ancient MS. Version we 
find the following words added: lest while we attribute 
very much to predestination and grace, we prejudice the 
powers and endeavours of free will, or while we exalt too 
highly the powers of free will, we derogate from the grace 
of Jesus Christ. " Father Rothaan.] 

182 dr&e &trttttal &tm&te of 

should not speak on the subject of pre 
destination frequently; [Autograph, we 
ought not to speak much on the subject of 
predestination in the way of habit* ;] and 
if it occur occasionally [Autograph, but if 
in any way and occasionally we speak of 
it], we ought so to temper what we say, 
as to give the people who hear no occasion 
of erring, and saying : If it is already de 
termined concerning my salvation or 
damnation, whether I do ill or well, it 
cannot happen differently : whence many 
are wont to neglect good works, and other 
helps of salvation. [Autograph, the works 
which conduce to salvation, and the spi 
ritual advance of their souls.] 

The sixteenth, it also happens not un- 
frequently, that from immoderate preach 
ing and praise of faith, without distinction 
or explanation added, the people seize a 
handle to be torpid concerning any good 
works, which precede faith, or follow it 
when formed by the bond of charity .f 

[* " In the way of habit. It might perhaps be rendered: 
ordinarily. The ancient MS. Version however has : as a 
custom and habit \ex usu et consiwtudine" Father 

\\ This, which agrees with the punctuation of the 
Douay edition of 1586, qucefidem prceeunt, aut sequuntur 
charitatis nexu efformatam, seems on the whole the most 


[Autograph, The sixteenth, for the same 
reason we must take care lest, by speaking 
much and with much earnestness concern 
ing faith, without any distinction and ex 
planation, occasion be given to the people 
of becoming torpid and slow in working, 
whether before faith formed by charity, or 
after (it has already been received).] 

The seventeenth, nor any more must 
we push to such a point the preaching and 
inculcating of the grace of God, as that 
there may creep thence into the minds of 
the hearers the deadly error of denying 
the faculty of our free will. [Autograph, 
as that there may be generated the venom 
(false teaching) by which liberty is de 
nied.] Concerning grace itself, therefore, 
it is allowable indeed to speak diffusely, 
God inspiring us, but so far as redounds to 

faithful rendering of the Common Version ; and, although 
another, agreeing with the punctuation of Father Ro- 
thaan s edition (that of 1838 at least), viz. " which pre- 
cede or follow the forming of faith by the bond of charity", 
would be more literally conformable to the Autograph, 
yet the above in reality expresses or implies just the same 
sense, viz. that works of charity both prepare the way for 
and are produced by faith. A third rendering which the 
words might admit, viz. " which precede faith, or follow 
it by the bond of charity when (already) formed", would 
be open to the objection of omitting the former half of 
the above important doctrine expressed by the Autograph, 
and by the other two renderings of the Common Version.] 

184 (T&c ^spiritual (Sjerders of 

His more abundant glory, and that after a 
fitting manner, especially in our so dan 
gerous times; lest both the use of free 
will and the efficacy of good works be 
taken away. [Autograph, Therefore con 
cerning faith and grace we may speak as 
much as possible, with the divine help, to 
the greater praise of His divine Majesty ; 
but not so, nor in such ways, especially in 
our so dangerous times, as that works and 
free will should receive any damage, or 
be accounted for nothing.] 

The eighteenth, although it is in the 
highest degree praiseworthy and useful to 
serve God from pure love, yet the fear of 
the divine Majesty is greatly to be com 
mended. And not that fear only, which 
we call filial, which is the most pious and 
holy; but also the other, which is called 
servile ; as being very profitable, and 
very often necessary to a man, that when 
we happen to fall into mortal sin, we may 
endeavour to rise again promptly from it : 
from which while we are free and sepa 
rate, the ascent will the more easily be 
open to us to that filial fear which is en 
tirely acceptable to God, which gives and 
preserves to us the union of love with 
God Himself. 

Lopola. 18o 

[Autograph, The eighteenth : although 
to serve God much from pure love is to 
be esteemed above all things, (yet) we 
ought to praise much the fear of His 
divine Majesty : because not the filial fear 
only is a pious and most holy thing, but 
also the servile fear, where a man does 
not attain to anything better and more 
profitable ; (because) it helps much to 
wards emerging from mortal sin, and after 
(a person) has emerged from this, he easily 
arrives at the filial fear, which is all (or, 
altogether) acceptable and agreeable to 
our Lord God, because it is together (in 
separably joined) with the divine love.] 


NOTE. In the ancient MS. Version we find here : 
Praise to God. These Exercises were written in the year of 
our Lord 1 541 . On the ninth day of July, at Rome. From 
which it is clear, since this MS. corresponds altogether 
with the Spanish Autograph, such as we now have it, 
that already in that year, and probably long before, the 
Exercises of our holy Father were altogether the same, 
and that they have always remained the same, no word 
having been altered or changed. 



Concerning both which see the Translator s Advertisement. 

In the title of the Annotations : for the 
help &c.] and that (by their help) as well 
he who is to give as he who is to receive 
them may help himself. 

Annot. 1. to travel &c.] to go, 

so any method of preparing and after 

one has removed them, the ordering 

one s life, for the salvation &c. 

Annot. 4. the consideration &c.] the 

consideration and contemplation up 

to the Day of Palms inclusively . 

For since it happens that in the First 

Week for their sins ; since also some 

are more diligent than others; also some 
are more (than others) agitated or tried 
by various spirits ; it is necessary &c. 

Annot. 7. confirming &c.] adding to 
him spirit and strength for the future, 
and laying open to him the wiles of the 

188 (T&e Spiritual (Ejrmteca of 

enemy of human nature, and effecting 
(admonishing, exhorting) that he prepare 
and dispose himself for coming consolation. 

Annot. 8. The eighth c.] The eighth, 
he who is giving the Exercises, according 
to the need he shall perceive (to be) in 
him who is receiving them, concerning 
desolations and the wiles of the enemy, as 
also concerning consolations, will be able 
to give (explain) to him the Rules &c. 

Annot. 16. towards anything less right, 
&c.] inordinately (out of order) towards 
anything, it is very fitting that she should 
move herself, striving with her whole 
powers that she may come to (arrive at) 
the contrary of that thing for which she 
has a wrong affection ; as, if she is affected 

towards seeking and possessing &c. 

unless Mis Divine Majesty, reducing into 
order her desires, shall have so changed 
for her her former affection, c. 

Annot. 18, end: it will be better to 
prescribe him some of the said lighter Ex 
ercises Examinations of Conscience, 

&c.] it is more fitting to give him some 
of these light Exercises (i. e., according to 
Father Rot/man, some light, or some of 
the lighter, things from the Book of Exer 
cises), until he make the Confession of his 

tttfi lopoia. 189 

sins ; and giving him afterwards some Ex 
aminations of Conscience, and prescribing 
that he confess more frequently than he 
was accustomed, in order that he may 
preserve himself in what he has gained, 
not go on further into the matter of 
Election &c. 

Annot. 19. The nineteenth is, that to 
a man engaged with public or other fitting 
business, having an hour and a half each 
day for undertaking some Exercises, &c.] 
The nineteenth, to him who should be en 
tangled (or occupied) with public or other 
fitting (useful, necessary) business, if 
he take an hour and a half (each day) for 
the performance of the Exercises, &c. 
(Father Rothaan illustrates the import 
ance of this last distinction by the case of 
Possevinus, Secretary of the Company 
under Father Everard, who, with only an 
hour and a half in the day at his disposal, 
went through the whole of the Exercises, 
spending forty-seven days on those of the 
First Week.) 

Title : Certain Spiritual Exercises &c.] 
Spiritual Exercises, that one may over 
come one s self, and order one s life, not 
determining one s self by any affection 
which is inordinate (out of order). 

190 C&e Spiritual exercises of 


Foundation : The Principle or Foun 
dation. Man was created - we ought to 
hold ourselves indifferent, &c.] The Prin 
ciple and Foundation. Man was created, 
that he might praise our Lord God, give 
Him reverence, and serve Him, and by 
means of these things save his soul ; and 
the other things on the face of the earth 
were created for man s sake, and that they 
might assist him in pursuing the end for 
which he was created. Whence it follows, 
that a man should use them in so far as 
they assist him towards his end, and that 
he ought to clear (withdraw) himself from 
them in so far as they hinder him from 
it ; wherefore (in order to attain to which) 
it is necessary to make ourselves indif 
ferent towards all created things, in so 
far as it is allowed to the liberty of our 
free-will, and not prohibited ; so that we 
wish not on our part health more than 
sickness, riches than poverty, honour than 
disgrace, a long life than a short one ; and 
in like manner in the case of all other 
things ; desiring and choosing those only 
which conduct us better to the end for 
which we were created. 

Particular Examination, first para- 

lopola. 191 

graph : the diligent - sin or fault of 
which, &c.] to be diligently on his guard 
against that particular sin or defect from 
which he wishes to correct and amend 

Second paragraph : ask of God - let 
him propose anew &c.] ask of our Lord 
God what he wishes (desires), namely, the 
grace - sin or defect - concerning 
that proposed and particular thing from 
which he wishes to correct and amend 
himself, running separately (discurrendo) 
through the several hours, or through the 
several times, beginning from the hour 
when he rose, down to the hour and point 
of time (momentum) of the present ex 
amination, - and afterwards propose 
anew to amend himself up to the other 
examination which he will make. 

Additions, title : sin or fault &c.] 
sin or defect &c. 

First : that kind of sin or fault, - 
others &c.] that particular sin or defect, 
- many &c. 

General Examination, title, G. Ex. of 
C., most useful &c.] G. Ex. of C., for 
cleansing one s self, and for confessing 

Parag. 1 .- It is pre-supposed &c.] I 

192 (Tbc Spiritual 6j:mt6eis of 

pre-suppose (lay down beforehand) that 
there are in me three kinds of thoughts ; 
namely, one which is my own, arising of 
my own clear liberty and will ; &c. 

Concerning Thought, parag. 4: or 
shews himself, &c.J or when there is 
(comes in) some negligence in throwing 
back such thought. 

Concerning Word, parag. 3 : First, 
&c.] The first (reason), when we wish to 
swear by any creature, in that (act), 
while we wish to name a creature, it (this 
creature, or, the wish to swear by a crea 
ture) does not render us so attentive and 
cautious to speak the truth, or to affirm it 
with (not without) necessity, as when we 
wish to name the Lord and Creator of all 

Method of General Examination, pa- 
rag. 3 : through &c.] through the several 
hours, or several times, then concern 
ing word, and afterwards concerning 
deed, c. 

The Use of General Confession and of 
Communion. From a General &c.] Ge 
neral Confession with Communion. In a 
General among many other advantages 
will be found three in this place (i. e. at 
this time of the Exercises). 

lopola. 193 

First Exercise, title : The first of the 
soul, concerning three sins; containing&c.] 
The First Exercise is a Meditation (to be 
made) by means of the three powers (of 
the soul) concerning the first, second, 
and third sin. It contains in itself, after 
a preparatory prayer and two preambles, 
three capital points (?. e. points of the 
utmost importance) and one colloquy. 

Parag. 3 : But if &c.] In (meditation 
on a thing) invisible [in the preceding 
paragraph we have : in contemplation or 
meditation (on a thing) visible], as is 
(that) here concerning sins, the composi 
tion will be to see, by the sight of the 
imagination, and consider that my soul 
is in this corruptible body (as if) shut up 
in a prison (or, workhouse, ergastuld) ; 
and the whole compound in this valley as 
it were in exile (cast out into exile) among 
the brute animals. I call the whole com 
pound that of my soul and body (that is 
to say, myself altogether). 

Parag. 4, end : and that I &c.] and 
how often I have deserved to be damned 
for ever on account of my so many sins. 

First point, last sentence : but not 
choosing to give reverence and obedience 
to their Creator, but were changed from 

194 C&e Spiritual <;mt0e0 of 

grace into wickedness, &c.] not choosing 
to assist themselves by the help of their 
liberty to give reverence and obedience to 
their Creator and Lord, passing into pride, 
were changed &c. 

Second point, first sentence : The se 
cond how great a corruption has 

come upon &c.] The second (point will 
be), to do the same, that is to draw (ap 
ply) the three powers upon and how 

great a corruption has come upon the 

human race, so many human beings going 

to (towards) Hell. ( What the Common 

Version has would seem rather, as Father 

Rothaan remarks, to belong to the tltird 


Third point, end: that everlasting pun 
ishment is justly imposed on sin, c.] 
how in sinning, and acting against infinite 
Goodness, (such a man) has justly been 
condemned for ever ; and to conclude with 
acts of the will, as has been said. 

Second Exercise* point 3 : The third, 
&c.] The third, to look (consider) who I 
am, diminishing myself by examples : 
first, what my gn-.-itness is in comparison 
with all men; f- ondly, what men are 
in comparison ^ th nil the Angels and 
Saints of Parad : thirdly, to look at 

lopola. 195 

(consider) what all created things are in 
comparison with God : what now can 
I alone be ? fourthly, to look at (con 
sider) all rny corruption and bodily pollu 
tion; fifthly, to look at (consider) myself 
as a kind of ulcer or boil, whence so many 
sins and so many wickednesses, and venom 
so exceedingly foul, have swarmed forth 
(pullularunt) . 

Third Exercise, end of first point: 
Then &c.] After which things I shall make 
three colloquies in the manner which 

First colloquy, end: thirdly, that having 
perceived and condemned &c.] thirdly, to 
ask the knowledge of the world, in order 
that, abhorring (it), I may remove worldly 
and vain things from me. And then once 
A ve Maria. 

Four tli Exercise, title : The Fourth 
&c.] The Fourth Exercise is by summing 
up (resumendd) this same third. 

Such a repetition - will also have 
&c.] I have said by summing up, in 
order that the understanding may go 
continually (assidue), without turning 
aside, over the remembrance of the things 
which it has contemplated in the foregoing 
Exercises; making also the same collo 

196 dT&e Spiritual C^crciscc of 

Fifth Exercise, second prelude : that, 
if &c.] that, if (ever), on account of my 
faults, I shall have forgotten the love of 
the eternal Lord, at least the fear of pu 
nishments may assist me, that I come not 
into sin. 

Ex. 5, point 1 : after " as it were in 
dungeons" add, " (velutergastulis)"; and 
at the end of the foot-note, " [The Auto 
graph has only : and the souls as it were 
in fiery bodies.]" 

Second parag. after Ex. 5 : As to the 

time before we have taken food ; 

Which c.] The first Exercise will be 
performed at midnight ; the second as 
soon as one is up in the morning ; the 
third before or after Mass, in a word be 
fore dinner*; the fourth at the hour of 
Vespers ; the fifth an hour before supper. 
This repetition (iteration, alternation) of 
hours, more or less, I always understand 
(to be observed) in all the four weeks, in 
so far as age, disposition, and complexion 

* /. e. an early dinner, prandium; which will express 
also a late breakfast, if this be the only meal taken before 
evening. That St. Ignatius supposes only two (or, at 
most, only two regular) meals as a general rule, viz. 
prandium as above, and ccena, the evening meal) whether 
called dinner or supper), is sufficiently clear from the last 
of the Rules at the end of the Third Week. 

J^t. 3Ts;nattttfif iopoln, 197 

(constitution) assists him who is being 
exercised for the performance of five Ex 
ercises or fewer. 

Second Addition, former part : and 
that, -- how some soldier &c.] drawing 
(exciting) myself to confusion concerning 
my so many sins, putting forward (to 
myself) examples; as if some knight (in 
the Spanish caballero, i. e. chevalier) 
were standing before his king and all his 
(the king s) court, &c. 


The Second Week. A Contemplation 
&c.] Call of a temporal king, (which) helps 
to the contemplation of the Life of the King 
eternal. ( On Ms title Father Rothaan 
observes : " The title is such as to point out 
that the following contemplation is used as 
a preparation to the contemplation of the 
Life of Christ, which is the subject of the 
Second and Third Weeks. It must also 
be observed that the heading, The Second 
Week, is not found in this place in the 
Autograph. See however the title con 
cerning the Incarnation, below ; where it 
is said: The First Day &c." i.e. " The 
First Day and First Contemplation." 

Third point: The third is, - soldier 

198 C&e Spiritual (S^miacc of 

&c.] The third, to consider what good 
subjects ought to answer so liberal and so 
kind a king; and consequently, if any one 
did not accede to the request of such a 
king, how worthy he would be to be 
blamed by the whole world, and to be ac 
counted a perverse (worthless) knight. 
( On the word knight, see above in the 
second of the Ten Additions.) 

The second part &c.] The second part 
of this Exercise consists in applying the 
aforesaid example of the temporal king to 
Christ our Lord concerning the said three 

First, we shall thus &c.] And as to the 
first point, if we regard such a call of the 
temporal king to his subjects (think it 
worthy of attention), how much more is 
it a thing worthy of attention to see Christ 
our Lord, the eternal King, and before 
Him the whole world, which (altogether), 
and each one (of men) in particular, He 
calls, and says : My will &c. that fol 
lowing Me in pain (in labours), he may 
also follow Me in glory. 

Thirdly, &c.] The third, they who shall 
be willing to have a greater affection (to 
wards the King Christ), and to shew them 
selves remarkable in all the service of 

ms lopola. 199 

their eternal King and universal Lord, 
will not only offer themselves altogether 
for labour, but also by acting in opposi 
tion to their own sensuality, and in oppo 
sition to their carnal and worldly love, 
will make offerings of greater value and 
greater weight, saying : 

" eternal Lord of all things, I make 
my oblation with Thy favour and help, 
before Thine infinite goodness, and in the 
sight of Thy glorious Virgin Mother, and 
of all the Saints (Sanctorum et Sanctarwii) 
of the heavenly Court; (testifying) that I 
wish and desire, and it is my deliberate de 
termination, provided it be Thy greater 
service, and Thy (greater) praise, to imitate 
Thee in bearing all injuries, and all blame, 
and all poverty, as well actual as spiritual, 
if Thy most holy Majesty shall be pleased 
to choose and receive me to such a life and 

In this Second and the following Weeks, 
&c.] For the Second Week, and so after 
wards, it is very profitable to read (some 
thing) every now and then from the 
Books on the Imitation of Christ, or of 
the Gospels, arid of the Lives of the Saints. 
( With respect to the placing of the Imi 
tation of Christ first, Father Rothaan re- 

200 (Tfjc Spiritual 6vcrctfic0 of 

marks that it is easier reading, and not 
such as to withdraw the mind from the 
main subject of the meditations, but rather 
most suitable for the greater confirmation 
of the practical conclusions conceived 
therein. He also remarks the absence in 
the Autograph of the " &c." with which 
the paragraph concludes in the Common 
Version. ) 

First Med. of First Day ; third point* : 
that I may know &c.] the intimate know 
ledge of the Lord, AVho became Man for 
me ; &c. 

Lastly, I shall subjoin &c.] In the end 
must be made the colloquy, considering 
what I ought to say to the three Divine 
Persons, or to the eternal Word Incar 
nate, or to (His) Mother and our Lady ; 

* These three points (the person, words, and actions) 
are intended to shew, not the divisions of the whole Me 
ditation, but the manner of meditating on each of the 
divisions or points given further on in the Mysteries of 
the Life of Christ. Also, if actions occur before words, 
they should be contemplated before them ; and other 
points, as the thoughts, inward affections, and virtues of 
the persons, the manner and object of the Mysteries, the 
cause, effect, time, and other circumstances, may be 
added with profit. (See the Directory, Chap. 19 ; . 5, 
6, 7.) In the same way must of course be understood the 
three additional points at the beginning of the Third, and 
the two additional points at the beginning of the Fourth 


-- thus newly incarnate ; saying in the 
end Pater noster. 

Med. 2, parag. 2 : The words, as one 
may piously meditate, are added in the 
Spanish Autograph after about nine 
months gone with child ; in the ancient 
MS. Latin Version, after an ox. In both, 
says Father Rothaan, they have been 
added in the margin by St. Ignatius s 
own hand, and refer, as is clear, to all 
that is here said, which the Gospel does 
not express. 

First point: The first &c.] The first 
point is, to see the persons, that is to see our 
Lady, and Joseph, and the handmaid, and 
the Infant Jesus after He shall have been 
born, making myself a poor wretch, and 
unworthy servant, looking at them, con 
templating them, and ministering to them 
in their necessities, as if I were present on 
the spot, with all possible service (or hu 
mility, devotion) and reverence ; and then 
to turn back upon (reflectere in) myself, 
in order to receive some fruit. 

The second &c.] The second, to attend, 
apply my mind (advertere), and con 
template the things which they (the per 
sons) are saying; and by turning back 
upon myself receive some fruit. 

202 C&e Spiritual ?erctfie0 of 

The third and in the end about to 

undergo the Cross &c.] The third, to be 
hold and consider the things which they 
are doing, as is (as) to travel and to labour, 
(bear labours, miseries) that the Lord 
may be born in the greatest poverty, and 
that, after so many labours, after hunger, 
after thirst, after heat and cold, after in 
juries and insults, He may (in the end) 
die on the Cross ; and all these things for 
my sake. Then, by turning back (reftec- 
tcndo), to receive some spiritual fruit. 
Father Rotliaan observes that the Spanish 
para que sea nacido may also signify why 
(He) was born, wliich the Common Ver 
sion has expressed with the addition of the 
conjunction (putting et causarum ob quas 
instead of merely quare) . He prefers h ow- 
ever the other rendering, both as being 
that of the ancient MS. Version, and also 
as more suitable in itself; expressing, as 
it does, the end to which all was directed 
by God (an end so different from those for 
which men commonly undertake journeys; 
and not inviting (which the common ren 
dering may seem to do) to such an ex 
amination into causes as belongs rather 
to theological studies. 

These things &c.] To finish with the 

St. Sffnatroa JLopola. 203 

colloquy, as in the preceding contempla 
tion, and Pater nosier. 

In Med. 3, parag. 2, read, "in this 
Week and the following ones". 

Notes after Med. 5: These five &c.] 
First Note. It must be taken notice of 
for this whole Week, and the others which 
follow, that I ought to read only the Mys 
tery of the contemplation which I am im 
mediately about to make; so as that for 
that time I read no Mystery which I am not 
about to go through that day or that hour ; 
lest the consideration of one Mystery hin 
der the consideration of another. 

End of Note 4: The ten Additions, 
&c.] So as that all the ten Additions may 
be performed (observed) with much care 
(diligence and circumspection). 

Note 5 ; beginning : to the second and 

third Addition, 1 shall consider &c.] 

to the second Addition, placing before 

my eyes whither I am going, and before 
Whom, summing up a little the Exercise 
I arn about to perform, and afterwards 
making the third Addition, I shall enter 
upon the Exercise. 

Day 2, parag. 1, in the Common Text, 
read which below, &c. and which also be 
low, &c. 

204 fZT&e Spiritual OZfettwe of 

On the second paragraph (compare the 
note at the foot of the page) Father Ro 
th nan observes, that St. Ignatius 1 s reason 
for conceding or advising this mode- 
ration on these particular days may 
perhaps have been, " that the mind may 
approach in a more active and less fa 
tigued condition to the important busi 
ness of the election, which has to be begun 
after these days" 

Prelude concerning the States ; end of 
parag. 1 : that peculiar c.] in what life 
or (in what) state His Divine Majesty 
may be willing to use us for His service. 

Parag. 2. To the searching &c.] And 
therefore, by way of introducing us in 
some measure to this matter (/. e. the in 
quiring and asking as above), in the next 
following Exercise we shall see the inten 
tion of Christ our Lord, and over against 
it that of (the opposite intention of) the 
enemy of human nature, and how we 
ought to dispose ourselves, in order that 
we may arrive at that perfection, in what 
ever state or life (it may be), which our 
Lord God has given us to be chosen. 

Day 4, title : one that of Jesus Christ our 
most excellent General (Imperatoris) &c,] 
one that of Christ our highest Leader and 

lopola. 205 

Lord, the other that of Lucifer, the capital 
enemy of our human nature. u 1 like 
better" says Father Rothaan, " to ex 
press the Spanish Capitan in Latin by 
Dux (Leader) than by Imperator ( Com 
mander. For our most gracious King 
does not so much send His (soldiers) by 
command, as go before them by example 
and leading. Also that ancient MS. J rr- 
sion which we know that our holy Father 
Ignatius himself used, calls the Lord 
Christ everywhere Leader." 

In the second prelude, for Chief- Gene 
ral read highest Leader, and for captain 
read leader. For the first Leader the 
Spanish Autograph has Captain General, 
and for the second (leader), caudillo ; the 
former title expressing, as Father Rothaan 
remarks, a Commander-in- Chief of lawful 
warfare, the latter designating rather the 
leader of a faction, and being often used in 
a bad sense, as of a captain of robbers or 
malefactors. In order to express in some 
measure this distinction, he has made use 
of the terms Dux Generalis (Leader- 
General) and caput (head) in his literal 
Version. The Common Version makes no 
distinction ; and hence, in order to render 
this Version with strict faithfulness, we 

206 @T[)e Spiritual (Sperrtecc of 

must read, both here and in the next two 
paragraphs, leader instead of captain, 
although (as the reader will already have 
perceived) this latter is the term which 
corresponds the more nearly with the 
Spanish original. In all three places 
Father Rothaan has caput : in the third 
prelude he has again Dux instead of Im- 
perator : see above. In the first point, 
in order to be strictly with the Common 
Version, readier?/ and smoky chair in 
stead of chair of fire and smoke ; although 
this latter is what the Autograph has, a 
certain great chair of fire and smoke, 
" in which", observes Father Rothaan, 
there is no solidity, no true glory, but 
mere agitation and perpetual disturbance 
joined with thick darkness". " And this 
image", he adds, " exhibits the evil spirit 
such as he is, but not such as he offers 
hi in self to men s minds". 

Point 2 : The second, &c.] The second, 
to consider how he makes an assembly of 
innumerable demons, and howhe disperses 
them, (sending) these into such a city, 
and those into another, and so through 
the whole world, leaving out no provinces, 
places, states (or, conditions of men), nor 
any persons in particular. 

iufi lopoia. 207 

Point 3 : snares &c.] nets and chains; 
how they ought first to tempt (them) with 
the desire of riches, as he is accustomed 
(himself to do) in the generality of cases, 
in order that they may arrive the more 
easily at the vain honour of the world, 
and thence to great pride. (For great the 
Spanish has crecida, having grown great 
by new additions continually made.} 

Thus then steps &c.] So that the first 
step may be that of riches, the second that 
of honours, the third that of pride; and 
from those three steps he (Lucifer) leads 
to all remaining vices. 

In like manner &c.] In like manner, on 
the opposite side, we must exercise our 
imagination concerning our highest and 
true Leader, Who is Christ our Lord. 

The third, &c.] The third, to consider 
-- to such an expedition, -- leading 
them first to the highest spiritual poverty, 
-- no less (or, also) to actual poverty; 
secondly to the desire of reproaches and 
contempts, because from these two things 
(i. e. poverty and contempt) follows hu 

Last paragraph : And two repetitions, 
&c.] And two repetitions of the same will 
be made at the hour of Mass, and at the 

208 $F&c Spiritual (Ererdscfi of 

hour of Vespers, always finishing with the 
aforesaid three colloquies, to Our Lord, to 
the Son, and to the Father ; and that 
(Exercise) concerning the Pairs (Classes 
of men) which follows (will be made in 
the hour before supper. 

Meditation on the Classes : The first 
Class, then, &c.] The first Pair (Class) 
would wish to take away (shake off) the 
affection which they have towards the 
thing acquired, in order that they might 
find in peace our Lord God, and might 
know (be able) to save themselves, and 
(yet) do not lay down the means up to the 
hour of death. ( On " would wish " Father 
Rothaan observes : " So from the Auto 
graph; not wish. They do not desire 
really; but would desire") 

first Mode of Humility : The first, 
&c.] The first Mode of Humility is neces 
sary for everlasting salvation, namely, that 
I so lower myself, and so humble myself, 
to the best of my power, as in all things 
to obey the law of our Lord and God, in 
such sort that even if they would make 
me lord of all created things in this world, 
or for (the preservation of) my own tem 
poral life, I do not come (be not led) into 
deliberation concerning transgressing any 


command, either divine or human, which 
binds me under pain of mortal sin. (" In 
this way\ says Father Rothaan, " it is 
<>.r pressed more clearly from the Auto 
graph, that it is not the act, but the habit, 
the disposition of mind, that is here 
treated of") 

Second Mode; end: and that c.] and 
also, that neither for the sake of all created 
things, nor because they would take away 
my life, I come into deliberation concern 
ing the commission of any venial sin. 

The third Mode &c.] The third is the 
most perfect humility, namely, when, in 
cluding the first and second, where the 
praise and glory of the Divine Majesty 
shall be equal, in order to imitate (the 
more) Christ our Lord, and that I may be 
the more like Him in act, I wish and 
choose rather poverty with Christ poor, 
than riches ; reproaches with Christ full of 
reproaches, than honours ; and desire more 
to be accounted empty (without sense, 
useless : Lat. vanus) and foolish for Christ s 
sake, Who before me was accounted such, 
than (to be accounted) wise and prudent 
in this world. (Father Rothaan observes 
that this third mode of humility " contains 
the most chaste love of Christ, and in this 

210 &l)t ^ptritnnl (Ejrmififfi of 

love is altogether founded, and wonder- 
fnlly agrees with the Exercises concerning 
the Kingdom of Christ, which is as it 
were the Foundation of the Exercises 
after the First Week ", as he has already 
observed in the proper place.) 

Moreover, &c.] For him, then, who de 
sires to obtain this third humility, it is of 
great service (to this end) to make the 
aforesaid three colloquies concerning the 
(or, the three colloquies concerning the 
aforesaid) Classes (Pairs), asking that Our 
Lord would be pleased to choose him to 
this third, greater and better, humility, in 
order that he may the more imitate and 
(the better) serve Him, if (or, provided) 
the service and praise of His Divine Ma 
jesty be equal or greater. 

In the Prelude to the Election, second 
sentence, for be subordinate read be made 

Sentence 3 : Whence they err not 

going straight towards God, &c.] as it 
happens that many choose in the first 
place to marry a wife, which is the means, 
and in the second piace, in the conjugal 
state to serve our Lord God, which 
(namely), to serve God, is the end. In 
like manner there are others who in the 
first place wish to have (Ecclesiastical) 

Loola. 211 

benefices, and afterwards to serve God in 
them. These therefore do not go straight 
towards God, but wish that God should 
come straight to their own inordinate af 
fections, and consequently of the end make 
means, and of the means an end ; in such 
sort that what they ought to take in the 
former place they take in the latter place. 

Introduction fyc. The first point &c.] 
The first point is a matter of necessity, 
that all things concerning which we wish 
to make an election be indifferent or good 
in themselves, and such as militate within 
the holy Mother the Hierarchical Church, 
and not bad, nor repugnant to her. 

Third point, last sentence: In which 
matter &c.] as in this matter many 
are in error, making (imagining to them 
selves) of an oblique or of a bad election 
a divine vocation ; because every divine 
vocation is always pure and clean, Avitli- 
out admixture of the flesh, or of any other 
inordinate affection. 

Last paragraph : It must &c.] Xote : 
it must be observed, that if such a mutable 
election has not been made sincere and 
well ordered, then it is expedient to per 
form the elect ion duly, if anyone desire that 
there may proceed from himself remarkable 
fruits and very pleasing to our Lord God. 

212 C&e gtrttu."il Cjrerctfit-6 of 

. Concerning three Times fyc. The 
second &c.] The second, when there is re 
ceived (perceived) much clearness and 
knowledge by the experience of consola 
tions and desolations, and by the experi 
ence of the discernment of different spirits. 

Paragraph 4 .- And this &c.] I have 
said a tranquil time, when the soul is not 
agitated with different spirits, and uses its 
natural powers freely and in tranquillity. 

First Method fyc. parag. 2 : The se 
cond &c.] The second, it is necessary to 
hold as the object the end for which I was 
created, which is, that I may praise our 
Lord God, and save my soul ; and at the 
same time to find (feel) myself indifferent, 
without any inordinate affection ; so that I 
be not inclined or affected more towards 
accepting the thing proposed than towards 
leaving it, nor more towards leaving it 
than towards accepting it ; but that I find 
(hold) myself as it were on the turning-pin 
of a balance (in an equilibrium), in order 
to follow that which I shall have perceived 
to be the more for the glory and praise of 
our Lord God and the salvation of my soul. 

The third, &c. J The third, to ask of our 
Lord God, that He will be pleased to move 
my will, and put in my soul that which I 

lopoln. 21 

ought to do concerning the thing proposed, 
which may be the more to His praise and 
glory; reasoning (?*. e. so that I may rea 
son) well and faithfully with my under 
standing, and choosing (i. e. so that I may 
choose) conformably to His most holy and 
well-pleasing will. ( u Not only according 
to His will", observes Father RotluKtu, 
u but also according to His good pleasure, 
which belongs to a greater perfection") 

The fourth, &c.] The fourth, to consider 
by reasoning, how many advantages and 
gains (utilitates) arise to me, for the sole 
praise of our Lord God, and the salvation 
of my soul, if I have (?*. e. by having) the 
proposed office or benefice ; &c. 

The sixth, the election having been 
made, &c.] The sixth, such an election or 
deliberation having been made, he who 
has made it ought to go with much dili 
gence to prayer before the sight of our 
Lord God, and to offer to Him such 
election, that His Divine Majesty may be 
pleased to accept and confirm it, if it shall 
be His greater service and praise. 

Second Method, Rule 1 : should feel in 
himself, - towards the thingchosen 3 &c.] 
should feel first in himself, -- towards 
the thing he is choosing, &c. 

Rule 4: that I may then have the less 

214 (Lfic >pfritufil GjrmttffS of 

fear.] that I may then find myself (be) 
with full pleasure and joy. 

Concerning Amendment - condition 
of life.] For the Amendment and Reform 
ation of one s own life and state. 

End of Week 2 : not aiming at &c.] 
not wishing or seeking anything else, ex 
cept in all things and through all things 
the greater praise and glory of our Lord 
God. For let each one consider, that the 
measure of his advancement in all spiritual 
things will be the measure of his going out 
(stripping himself) of his own love, (his 
own) will, and (his own) advantage. (77*6? 
eminently Catholic sentiment of Horace, 
Carm. 3, 16, Quanto quisque sibi plura 
negaverit, a Dis plura feret, is in some 
measure a parallel to this golden passage.) 

Week 3, Med. 2, in the title, read after 
the Supper. 

Second prelude : The second &c.] The 
second is, to see the place. It will here 
be to consider the way from Mount Sion 
to the Valley of Josaphat, and in like 
manner the Garden, whether wide, whether 
long, whether (placed) in this or in that 

The third, for the obtaining &c.] The 

t. 3F(piattttg Loyola. 215 

third, to ask what I wish, what is appro 
priate to ask in the Passion; (namely) 
grief with Christ full of griefs ; breaking in 
pieces (prostration) with Christ broken 
(in strength, in a state of consternation) ; 
tears, inward pain concerning the so great 
pain which Christ suffered for me. 

Last paragraph but one : which from 
the hour of His Birth &c.] which He en 
dured from the moment of His Birth, up 
to the Mystery of the Passion, on which I 
am now engaged. 

In the foot-note to the Second Day, 
read : from the Garden - " So, accord 
ing to the Autograph, both here and every 
where else, does our holy Father - ". 

Rules concerning Food : The fifth, &c.] 
The fifth, at the time when one takes food, 
let him consider as if he saw Christ our 
Lord taking food with His Apostles, and 
how He drinks, and how He looks, and 
how He speaks ; and take care to imitate 
Him; so that the understanding may be 
occupied chiefly with the consideration of 
Our Lord, and less with the support of 
the body; in order that he may thus gain 
more method (in the Spanish concierto, as 
it were system ; in the ancient MS. Version 
form) and order concerning the manner in 
which he ought to carry and govern himself. 

216 (T&e Spiritual &j;miBt& of 

The eighth &c.] The eighth, in order to 
get rid of (all) excess (inordinationem) 
(concerning food and drink), it is a great 
help, after dinner, or after supper, or at 
another hour when one does not feel the 
desire of eating, to determine with one s 
self for the dinner or supper* next follow 
ing, and so in like manner (conseq-uenter) 
each day, the quantity which it is expe 
dient to take ; beyond which, neither on 
account of any appetite, nor on account of 
(nny) temptation, let him go ; but rather, in 
order the more to overcome every inordin 
ate appetite and temptation of the enemy, if 
he is tempted to eat more, let him eat less. 

Week 4, Med. 1 : The first prelude - 
how, after &c.] The first preamble is the 
history; which is here, how, after Christ 
had expired on the Cross, and His Body 
remained separated from His Soul, and 
His Divinity ever united with It (with His 
Body), His beatified Soul (Anima beata), 
equally united with His Divinity, de 
scended to Hell ; whence, delivering the 
just souls, and coming to the Sepulchre, 
and rising again, He appeared to His 
blessed Mother in body and soul. ( With 

* See above, Week I, last foot-note. 

Loyola. 21 

respect to the words, as we should fyc. at 
the end of the common rendering of this 
paragraph, see the Mysteries.) 

Prelude 3 : The third &c.] The third, 
to ask what I wish; and it will be here, to 
ask grace that I may rejoice and be in 
tensely glad concerning the so great glory 
and joy of Christ our Lord. Fattier Ro- 
thaan compares the language of the Gloria 
in excelsis : " We give Thee thanks for 
(because of) Thy great glory." 

Point 4: shews Itself forth &c.] ap 
pears and shews Itself now so miraculously 
in His most holy Resurrection, by Its true 
and most holy effects. 

Observations, parag. 2 .- Secondly, -- 
this Fourth Week &c.] The second Note; 
it. is commonly more suitable in this 
Fourth Week than in the other three past 
to perform four Exercises and not five; 
the first, as soon as one is up in the morn 
ing ; -- drawing (applying) the five 
senses over the three Exercises of the 
same day, marking and dwelling on the 
more principal parts (moram faciendo in 
parttlus principalioribus), and (those) on 
which one has felt greater movements and 
spiritual tastes. (St. Ignatius does not 
here mention those places also where deso 
lation has been felt; perhaps, as Father 

218 dT&e Spiritual Cjrerrtfiffis of 

Rothaan observes, because laborious search 
is less suitable to this Week.) 

Parag. 3, first sentence: who is being 
exercised &c.] who is contemplating &c. 
( This annotation, as Father Rothaan re 
marks, is most suitable to all who are 
meditating, as well out of as in the Exer 
cises: also not less in the Mysteries of 
the Second and Third than in those of 
this Fourth Week.) 

Last paragraph but one, second foot 
note; for help her to rejoice, read be a 
help to her towards rejoicing. 

A Contemplation for obtaining Love. 

A Contemplation intended &c.] A 
Contemplation for obtaining love.* 

In the first &c.] First, it is fitting to 
remark two things. 

The first, &c.] The first is, that love 
ought to be placed more in deeds than in 
words. (Father Rotliaan observes, that 
the same view must be taken of barren af 
fections as of words / such affections being 
inward words.) 

The second, &c.] The other, (that) 
love consists in the communication (which 
takes place) on both sides ; namely that 

* Father Rothaan s Version of this excellent Contem 
plation is here given entire. 

Sfanattufi Lopota. 219 

the lover give and communicate to the 
loved the things which he has, or of those 
which he has and can, and so in turn the 
loved to the lover ; so that if one of them 
have knowledge, he give it to the one who 
has it not ; if honours ; if riches ; and so 
(again) the other to him (in turn). 

The prayer &c.] The accustomed (pre 
paratory) prayer. 

The first prelude, &c.] The first pre 
amble is the composition ; which is here, to 
see how I stand before our Lord God, the 
Angels and Saints interceding for me. 

The second, &c.] The second to ask 
what I wish. It will be here, to ask the 
inward knowledge (cognitionem) of the 

food things, so many and so great, (which 
have) received (of God), in order that I, 
fully (integre) acknowledging (recogno- 
scendo) (these things) (or, with a full 
sense of gratitude), may in all things love 
and serve his Divine Majesty. 

Let the first &c.] The first point is to 
bring into memory the benefits received in 
Creation, in Redemption ; also particular 
gifts ; weighing with much affection how 
much the Lord God has done for me ; and 
how much He has given me of the things 
which He has ; and in like manner (con- 

220 <n, c Spiritual Cxmifictf of 

sequenter), (how much) the same Lord 
desires to give me Himself, so far as He 
ran. according to His divine appointment; 
and then to turnback upon (reflect&re ?>/) 
myself, considering with much reason and 
justice, what I ought on my part to offer 
and give to His Divine Majesty ; namely 
all I have, and myself therewith, as he who 
offers (something to another), with much 
affection : 

X.B. In the preceding paragraph the 
Spanish Editions now read, con mucha 
rftzoti if instttncia (with much reason and 
earnestness) ; but the MS. copy which St. 
Ignatius used, and in various places cor 
rected witli his own hand, reads justicia 
(justice), which both the Common and the 
MS. Latin Versions have expressed. The 
insertion (something to another} further 
on, is from this latter Version. 

"Receive, beyond."] " Take, Lord, 
and receive all my liberty ; my memory, 
my understanding, and my whole will ; 
what sever I have and possess : Thou hast 

fiven me all these things ; to Thee, Lord, 
restore them : all are Thine ; dispose 
(concerning them) according to all Thy 
will. Give me the love of Thee and grace ; 
for this is sufficient for me." 

The second giving, to be ; &c.] The 

t. Sgnatius lopola. 221 

second, to consider how God dwells in the 
creatures; (how He dwells) in the elements, 
giving to be ; in the plants, giving to vege 
tate ; in the animals, giving to perceive ; in 
men, giving to understand ; and so (dwells) 
in me, giving me to be, to live, to per 
ceive, and making me to understand ; also 
making me a temple (of Himself), since I 
have been created after the likeness and 
image of His Divine Majesty; in like 
manner turning back (reflectendo) to my 
self, in the way mentioned in the first 
point, or another (if I find another) 
which I shall perceive to be better. The 
same plan will have to be followed with 
regard to each of the points which follow. 

The third &c.] The third, to consider 
how God works and labours for my sake 
in all things created on the face of the 
earth, that is, acts (habet Se, holds Him 
self) after the manner of one labouring ; 
as in the heavens, the elements, the plants, 
the fruits, the flocks, &c. ; giving them to 
be, preserving them, giving them vegeta 
tion and perception, &c. Then to turn 
back to myself. 

The fourth, &c.] The fourth, to contem 
plate how all good things and gifts come 
down from above ; as my limited power 
down from that highest and infinite One; 

C&c Spiritual efrercww of 

and in the same manner justice, goodness, 
kindness, mercy, &c. ; as from the Sun 
come down the rays, from a fountain the 
waters, &c. Then to conclude by turning 
back upon myself, as has been said. 

A colloquy c.] To finish with a col 
loquy and Pater noster. 

N.B. For the better distinction of the 
above four points, Father Rothaan ob 
serves, that in the first we are to contem 
plate generally the benefits which have 
arisen, arise, and, we firmly trust, eternally 
will arise, to us from the love of God 
towards us. In the second we contemplate 
the presence of the Giver both in His 
gifts and in ourselves, a presence by 
which He makes His gifts in a manner 
personal on His part, i. e. bestowed per 
sonally by Himself. In the third we con 
template Him as also working, and in a 
manner labouring, in doing us good. 
(Under the second point may be contem 
plated our Lord s personal presence on 
earth during His mortal life, and His Sa 
cramental presence in the blessed Eucha 
rist ; under the third, all that He did and 
suffered for us while living here below.) 
The fourth directs us to the ground of the 
purest and most perfect love, Himself, 
and His infinite perfections. 

iua lopola. 223 

Three Methods of Praying. 

Three Methods of Praying.] Three 
Methods of Praying ; and the first (and 
first) concerning the commandments. 

Parag. 2 : Before I pray, what I have 
to come to, and what to do. &c.] First let 
there be made the equivalent of the second 
Addition of (/. e. the second Addition as 
changed in) the Second Week ; namely, 
that before I enter upon prayer, my spirit 
be quiet a little while, sitting or walking, 
as shall seem best to it, considering whi 
ther I am going, and to what ; and this 
same Addition will be made at the begin 
ning of all the Methods of Praying. (Fa 
ther Rotlinan calls attention to the great 
advantage of this preparation before all 
prayer of whatever kind, ivliether mental 
or vocal ; since u we ought not to pass 
tumultuously from liuwan actions, per 
haps even vain ones, to dealing with God 
or the Saints. 1 ") 

Parag. 4 .- First, then, &c.] For the 
first Method of Praying, it is fitting to 
consider and think in the first command 
ment, how I have kept it, and wherein I 
have failed; observing as a rule (i.e. a 
general rule) (to remain in this considera 
tion), during the space in which one recites 

224 &\>t Spiritual 6jrerdeefi of 

three times Pater nosier and three times 
Ave Maria ; and if in this time I find my 
faults, to ask their pardon and remission, 
and say one Pater noster ; and let this 
same plan be followed in each of the ten 
commandments. ("Pardon refers to the 
fault, remission to the punishment." 
Father Rot/iaan.) 

Parag. 7 (which in the Literal Version, 
like the \st, 9^, and 10/A, has a separate 
title): Secondly, &c.] Secondly, concern 
ing the mortal sins. 

Concerning the seven mortal sins, after 
the (aforesaid) Addition, let the prepara 
tory prayer be made &c. 

Parag. 9 : In the third &c.] Thirdly, 
concerning the powers of the soul. 

Concerning the three powers of the 
soul, let the same order and rule be fol 
lowed as in the commandments, making 
the proper Addition, preparatory prayer, 
and colloquy. 

Parag. 10: Fourthly, &c.] Fourthly, 
concerning the five senses of the body. 

Concerning the five senses of the body, 
the same order will still be observed, 
changing their matter. 

Where &c.] He that wishes to imitate 
in the use of his senses Christ our Lord, 
let him commend himself in the prepara- 

Locla. 225 

tory prayer to His Divine Majesty; and 
after the consideration of each sense, say 
one A ve Maria or one Pater nosier; and 
he who would wish to imitate Our Lady 
in the use of the senses, in the prepara 
tory prayer let him commend himself 
to her, that she may obtain for him grace 
from her Son and Lord for this purpose ; 
and after the consideration of each sense 
say one A ve Mar iff. 

In the translation of the Common Ver 
sion of the preceding paragraph, in order 
to be exactly with the Latin (dum sensus 
excutit, identidem repetat), instead of, 
" and after examining each sense, say", 
read, " and while he examines the senses, 
say each time (i. e. after each sense*)", 
adding as a foot-note to the word sense : 
[*That the Latin identidem must be so 
understood here, might fairly be inferred 
from the preceding paragraph, even with 
out the distinct language of the Auto 
graph : otherwise it might naturally be 
rendered, from time to time, every now 
and then. ] 

The Second Method of Praying, by the 
consideration &c.] The Second Method 
of Praying is (or, is performed) by the 
contemplation of the separate words of a 


226 (Lfjc Spiritual (E^miccc of 

prayer (of the prayer concerning which 
this Method of Praying is employed). 

The second &c.] The second Method 
of Praying is, that he (who wishes to 
employ this Method) kneel or sit, accord 
ing as he finds himself more disposed (to 
the one or the other), and according as 
devotion more accompanies him, and, 
keeping his eyes closed or fixed down to 
one place, and not moving them to and 
fro, say Pater, and continue in the consi 
deration of this word so long as he finds 
(various) significations, comparisons, taste, 
and consolation in the considerations be 
longing to such (that) word ; and in like 
manner do with any word of the Lord s 
Prayer, or of each (or, whatever, cujusque) 
other prayer he may wish (to take) for 
this mode of praying. (As before with 
respect to preparation, so here with respect 
to posture and the eyes, Father Rothaan 
remarks that tlie directions given are not 
confined to this particular Method, but, 
on the contrary, are highly conducive to 
the good success of all prayer.) 

At the end of the third rule the Auto 
graph adds: "in the manner mentioned 
in the second rule." 

Last paragraph but one : And after 

S>t. STsnattufi lopola, 227 

&c.] It must be observed, that the Lord s 
Prayer having been* finished in one or 
more days, the same ought to be done 
with respect to the Angelic Salutation, and 
afterwards with respect to the other 
prayers, so as that for some time he 
always exercise himself with one of them. 

Last parag : some virtue or grace &c.] 
the virtues or graces &c. 

The Third Method of Praying, by a 
certain &c.] The Third Method of Pray 
ing will be by (or, to) measure (or, to 
number, to the measure of rhythm). 

In the foot-note to this title, read : " will 
be par compas" (by, or, to measure) ; &c. 
Also, to the end of the note add : To this 
kind of sacred harmony, Father Rothaan 
applies the words of the 83d Psalm, " My 
heart and my flesh have exulted to the 
living God ". 

Two rules &c.] The first rule is, that 
another day, or at a different hour, when 
he wishes to pray (thus), he say A ue 
Maria to measure, and the other prayers 
in the accustomed way; and so in like 
manner, proceeding through the rest. 
( That ?s, as Father Rothaan explains it, 
if in the first place he has exercised him 
self concerning Pater noster, and in the 

228 (H)c Spiritual eymiaw of 

second concerning Ave Maria, then let 
Ithn in tln> third place do the same until 
Anima Christi, and so in order with the 
other prayers. And only one prayer is 
here supposed to be said in this way at 
one time, the rest being added afterwards 
in the usual manner. Nor is the length 
of time to be given to each such Exercise 
prescribed ; for those however irho wish 
to spend more time in this u-ay tlian one 
prayer irould take, the next rule gives 

The second, &c.] The second is, that he 
who shall wish to spend more time in 
praying to measure, may say all the afore 
said prayers, or part of them; observing 
the same order of breathing to measure, as 
it has been explained. 

Tartottfi Kales* 

Rules for discerning spirits; Rule 4, 
beginning: The fourth, - any darken 
ing of the soul, &c.] The fourth, concern 
ing spiritual desolation. I call by the 
name of desolation everything contrary to 
(the things said in) the third rule, as 
darkening of the soul, &c. 

In the foot-note to Rule 5, for such deso 
lation read desolation of this kind. 


On Rule 6, Father Rothaan writes : 
" Would that the things which our blessed 
Father here says are highly profitable in 
desolation were diligently brought into 
use by us whilst we are oppressed with 
desolation! Those words, ////ry/xr/// 
more much extending ourselves more, 
which are omitted in the Common Version, 
but which have been restored from the 
Autograph, are to be taken notice of." 
Father Rothaan. 

Rule 7, end : which may suffice &c.] 
which is sufficient for eternal salvation. 

Rule 8, end: if especially &c.] using 
diligence (or, efforts) against desolation 
of this kind, as has been said in the sixth 

Further Rules for ditto : The second, 
&c.] The second : it belongs to our Lord 
God alone to give the soul consolation (or, 
to give the consolation of the sou?) with 
out a cause preceding ; because it is pecu 
liar to the Creator &c. 

In the same rule, for such consolation 
read in both places consolation of tliis 
kind; and for without cause, without a 

The third &c.] The third : with a cause 
(i. e. when a cause precedes), the good and 
the bad Angel may alike console the soul, 

230 (ZF&e Spiritual (Bjrerdficfi of 

yet with contrary ends; the good Angel 
for the soul s advancement, that she may 
grow and ascend from good to better; 
the bad Angel, to the contrary and beyond 
(?*. e. to what is less good, or even to what 
is evil), that he may draw her to his own 
perverse intention and wickedness. 

The fourth wishes.] The fourth: it 

is the characteristic of the evil Angel, who 
transfigures himself into an Angel of 
light, to go in with the devout soul (i. e. 
to begin by suggesting thoughts conform 
able to her), and to go out with himself 
(/. e. to end by suggesting his own). 

The fifth, &c.] The fifth : we ought to 
attend very much to the course (discur- 
sum) of the thoughts; and if the be 
ginning, middle, and end (if, I say, these 
three be all good, tending to all (or, every 
thing) good (or, to what is altogether 
good),* a little more it is a sign of the 
good Angel; but if in the course of the 
thoughts which he (the Angel) suggests, he 
end in anything bad, or having a tendency 
to distract, or less good than the things 
which the soul had before proposed to her 
self to do, or (if he)weaken, or disquiet or 

* Correct thus what has already been given in the 

>t. Sonatina Loyola. 231 

disturb the soul, taking away from her her 
peace, tranquillity, and rest, which she had 
before, it is a clear sign that they (those 
thoughts) proceed from the bad spirit, the 
enemy of our advancement, and of our ever 
lasting salvation. (In the Common Version 
of this paragraph, near the end, for such 
thought read such a line of thought. ) 

Rule 6, end ; for a trial read an ex 

In the Rules concerning Alms ; Rule 
6, in the third insertion from the Auto 
graph, for excess read fault and excess ; 
and in the fourth, for he therefore read 
therefore he. 

In the Rules concerning Scruples, 
Rule 4, last sentence, for " obtuse, that " 
read " obtuse ; so that "; and for " and if 
she cared (for sins) in some degree before," 
read " for example, if she made nothing of 
venial sins before, he will do his best that 
she may (now) make little of mortal ones ; 
and if she ca^ed in some degree (for venial 
sins) before,". 

In the last of the Rules for thinking 
with the Church, in the Literal Version, 
because not the filial &c. So the passage 
must be pointed and rendered, if Father 
Rothaan s own punctuation is followed ; 

232 ^pirtttml evernccfi of >t. 

but if one may venture to correct the 
punctuation of his Latin without seeing 
the Spanish, it seems more natural to 
point, and consequently to render, his 
Latin as follows : u because not only is the 
filial fear a pious and most holy thing, but 
also the servile fear, where a man does 
not attain to anything better arid more 
profitable, helps much " &c. 



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the best attention of the students of history." Examiner, May 10, 1845. 

1 We must in justice say that we have never seen a mass of historical 
documents more faithfully edited, lucidly arranged, and impartially illus- 
rated than the collection before us. Prince Labanoff s integrity is equal 
;o his zeal ; he has ever kept in view the principal of giving the truth, the 
whole truth, and nothing but the truth ; he has reserved for a separate 
publication his own views of the evidence he has collected, and he nowhere 
allows the conclusions which he has formed to influence either his state 
ments or his comments." Athenceum, April and May, 1845. 

1 Seven hundred and thirty letters are now collected and printed in 
egular series, forming the most valuable contribution which perhaps the 
ristory of any country ever received. It is a work of rare information and 
of national interest."- Edinburgh Advertiser, June 10, 1845. 

" We heartily recommend these volumes to general attention, as one of 
jhe most valuable contributions ever offered to British literature by a 
foreign hand." Quarterly Review, December, 1845. 


Recently published, price 14s., in one vol., Svo., with a Frontispiece. 


Exhibiting Queen Elizabeth dancing before Sir Roger Aston, Ambas 
sador from James the First, and an unique Coin of Queen Mary upon the 

from the " Recueil des Lettres de Marie Stuart," and preceded by the 
Chronological Summary of Events during the Reign of the Queen of 
Scotland, by PRINCE A. LABANOFF. Translated with Notes and an Intro- 
duction, by WILLIAM TURNBULL, Esq., F.S.A., Scot. 

%* It may, perhaps, be necessary to state, that the whole of the 
Letters in this volume are now, for the first time, presented to the public 
in English, and that none of them are to be found in the Collection of 
Letters edited by Miss Strickland. 

" We app>ove heartily of this design, to give the cream of this important 
work to the general reader in a form intelligible to all ; for though the 
learned must be delighted with it in its original language, yet the antique 
and foreign obscurity of the greater portion of it necessarily excluded very 
many from its satisfactory perusal." Literary Gazette, May, 1845, p. 327. 

Of the admirable abstract which Mr. Turnbull has here made of the 
Prince s voluminous "Collections," we cannot speak in terms of too 
earnest praise. 

" It is difficult to gay whether the narrative or autobiographical interest, 
or historical importance, of this work be the more difficult sufficiently to 
appreciate." Su,., August 30, 1845. 

Recently published, the Fourth Edition of 

In Thirteen Volumes, Small Octavo, price 5s. each, cloth lettered. 
%* This edition of thic valuable and important work is printed uni 
form in size with the works of SCOTT, BYRON, MOORE, EDGEWORTH, 
SOUTH KV, and others ; and is enriched with a Portrait of the Author, 
from a painting by Lover, and by thirteen Plates engraved on steel, by 
GOOD ALL, from the designs made expressly for this edition, by Harvey, 
into all of which actual scenery has been introduced. 

The Public are respectfully informed, that this edition has received the 
most searching and extensive revision by the learned author, who has in 
serted additional matter in the text, as well as the notes, fully equal to 
the extent of another volume. 

" Dr. Lingard never evinces partiality ; he may be accused of it by those 
whose eyes are distorted by the blemish they deprecate, but by none others. 
He never perverts facts, and the arguments with which he supports the 
opinions which he draws from the narration of events are ever cogent and 
perspicuous. With a keen, searching, undeviating truthfulness, he has 
rescued our annals from much of the misrepresentation which the exaggera 
tions of partisanship have created, from much of the obscurity which the 
fantastic ingenuity of antiquaries has caused, and from many of the sophis 
tical conclusions of speculative theorists. This is no slight boon to ha\ t 
conferred both on the present and the future, but the task has been wel 
and ably performed." Oxford and Cambridge Review, January, 1846. 


CHURCH, containing an Account of its Origin, Government. Doctrines, 
Worship, Revenues, and Clerical and Monastic Institutions. Ry JoHN 
LINGARD, D.D. In 2 vols. 8vo. price 1. 4s. cloth lettered. 

"This is an augmented edition of a work long since published by Dr. 
Lingard, and scarcely so well known as it deserves to be ; but it is so com - 
pletely recast, and contains so large a proportion of fresh matter, that it 
may be considered as virtually a new book. If we were asked from what 
source one could obtain the greatest insight into the national mind and 
ways of thought of the Christian Anglo-Saxons, we should have no hesita 
tion in referring the inquirer to these pages. As a narration of facts, and 
expounder of the inferences more immediately to be drawn from them , 
there is no writer of the present day who excels the diligent, accurate, and 
eloquent historian of England." Morning Chronicle, January 30. 

li Of the Monastic Institutions among the Anglo-Saxons, Dr. Lingard 
has written in a spirit of candour and fairness ; he points out the abuses to 
which such communities are liable, and does not conceal the fact that such 
abuses frequently prevailed. On the other hand, he contends that the 
monks were foremost in communicating the knowledge of the industrial 
arts, and the taste for the fine arts, which are the most efficient agents of 
civilization. In particular, he shows how much was accomplished, by 
their exertions in improving the cultivation of the soil. Dr. Lingard 
minutely describes the rites and ceremonies of the Anglo-Saxons, and 
incidentally throws light on their domestic habits and usages. "- 

Athcnoeum, February %, 1845. 

Critical and Explanatory. By a CATHOLIC. In 1 vol. 8vo. price 
10s. 6d. in boards. 

Amongst the principal reasons which have led to this AY.r TY/, 
&re, first, to shew, in opposition to the Protestant principle, that the 
Scriptures are the sole rule of faith, " The impracticability of draw 
ing from the narratives of the FOUR EVANGELISTS, -without the aid 
of oral testimony or tradition, all their knowledge of Christian faith or 
Chritian practice." Vide PREFACE. 

2ndly. To present a new translation from the Original Greek, with 
explanatory and interesting notes; which, in removing the defects 
that exist in the present versions, and offering a more elegant transla 
tion of these divinely inspired books, should render them more intel 
ligible and attractive, and thus create a more general attention to 
their perusal. 

Worship of the Catholic Church. By JOHN LINGARD, D.D. 

A New Edition, revised, in 18mo. price Is. 

This work contains a short exposition of Catholic doctine and 
Catholic practice, xrith the chief authorities on which that doctrine 
anil practice are founded. 

Also, another Edition of the same, in larger type, 12mo. price Is. Gd 

U A bpautiful little volume, written with all that sobriety of style, power 
, and force of logir for which the venerable author is so remail:. 
f, Oct. 31, 1H40. 


THE CHURCH HISTORY OF ENGLAND, from the year 1500 to 
with Notes, and a Continuation to the Beginning of the Present Century, 
by the Rev. M. A. TIERNEV, F.R.S., F.S.A. 

Vols. I. to V. are published, price 12s. each in cloth. 

The work of HUGH TOOTLE, better known under the assumed name of 
CHARLES DODD, stands alone among the compilations of Catholic History. 
Commencing with the period of her first misfortunes in this country, the 
writer accompanies the ancient Church in all the vicissitudes of her course, 
during the next two centuries. He marks the origin of the Reformation in 
the wayward passions of Henry : mourns, with religion, over the ruined 
altars and desecrated shrines of Edward s reign : watches their alternate 
rise and fall under the sister sovereigns, Mary and Elizabeth ; and, tracing 
the various calamities of his Catholic countrymen under the dynasty of the 
Stuarts, closes his work with the closing fortunes of that unhappy family. 
The readers of Dodd are aware that his nistory is divided into eight parts, 
corresponding with the eight reigns over which it extends. Of these parts, 
each is again divided into the three other parts of History, Biography, and 
Records ; and these are still farther subdivided into an indefinite number oi 
articles, according to the variety of the subjects to be treated, or to the rank 
of the several persons whose lives are to be recorded. It is needless to point 
out the inconvenience of this complex and disjointed arrangement. To 
remedy this defect, it is proposed, in the present edition, to place the work 
under the two grand divisions of History and Biography ; to print the History 
in the earlier, the Biography in the latter volumes ; to subjoin to each an 
Appendix, containing its own records properly arranged : and to insert a 
reference in the notes to each article of that appendix, according as it* 
subject arises in the course of the narrative. It is only requisite to add, that 
the lives, in the biographical part, will be methodically disposed ; that the 
authorities, both of Dodd and of the Editor, will be carefully stated in the 
notes; and that a General Index to the contents of the whole work will bt 
given at the end of the Continuation. 

To be completed in Fourteen Volumes. Fifty Copies printed on largt 
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N.B. Subscribers names may be transmitted to the Publisher thmu^l 
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The HISTORY and Antiquities of the Castle and Town of ARUN- 
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present Time. By the Rev. M. A. TIERNEY, F.R.S., F.S.A., Chap 
lain to his Grace the Duke of Norfolk. In 2 vols., royal 8vo., illus 
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" When we say that more than one-half of this work is Biography, and 
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A LETTER to the Very Rev. G. CHANDLER, D.C.L., Dean of 
Chicbester, and Rector of All Souls, Langham Place, &c., &c., con 
taining some remarks on his Sermon, preached in the Cathedral 
Church of Chidiester, on Sunday, October 15, 1843, "on the occasion 
of publicly receiving into the Church a convert from the Church of 
Rome." Bv the Rev. M. A. TIERNEY, F.R.S., F.S.A. 8vo.. price Is Cd. 


C. Dolman having purchased from the executors of the late CHARLES 
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SCOTTISH CATHOLICS since the REFORMATION ; with a succinct 
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Separatists from the Church of Rome before the Reformation ; the society 
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fourth edition, with a Letter on Ancient and Modern Music. Volume II. 
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CHURCH," against the Rev. George Townsend s " Accusations of History 
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The LIFE of ERASMUS, with Historical Remarks on the State of 
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The LIFE of HUGO GROTIUS, with Brief Minutes of the Civil, 
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LIFE of HENRY FRANCIS D AGUESSEAU, Chancellor of France ; and 
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French Law ; and an Historical and Literary Account of the Roman and 
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by the Rev. J. A. HEARN. Dedicated to the Right Rev. Dr. Griffiths, Bishop 
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The Mores Cat/iolici, from the prodigious extent of information, se 
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over the civilized world during the Middle Ages, when, in so far as i; 
practicable to humanity, there was but one fold and one Shepherd, th< 
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BREVIARIUM ROMANUM ex decreto SS. Concilii Tridentini resti 
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A COMPLETE CATALOGUE of BOOKS in various Languages, an 
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Martyrs, and other Principal Saints. With a Preface by the Right 
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OF THE SAINTS to the Present time, with Bibliographical 
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Notes and Dissertations elucidating its Doctrines and its Ceremonies. 
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In the Second Part are treated at length Transubstantiation, 
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CHURCH ;< shewing that the former are no less convincing than the 
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an Historical View of the Catholic Church in every Age and Country, 
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the late HENRY DIGBY BKSTK, Esq., M. A., Fellow of St. Mary Mag 
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MEMORIALS- RITUUM, pro aliquibus prestantiorihus, sacris fnnc 
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SCIENCE and REVEALED RELIGION, with Map and Plates. 
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the Blessed Eucharist. Delivered in the English College, Rome 
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CONTRASTS; or, a PARALLEL, between the NOBLE 
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FRANCIS WALSINGHAM, Deacon of the Protestant Church, before his 
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ERASTUS SENIOR scholastically demonstrating this conclusion, 
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so much as legal: in answer to Mason, Heylin, and Bramhall. By 
PETER TALBOT, Archbishop of Dublin, first printed in IGG J. 

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of the SOCIETY of JESUS. By the REV. DR. OLIVER. 

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PERFECTION, composed by the Venerable and Famous Father 
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llth of April, 1643. Faithfully translated out of the Sixth and last 
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RULES of a CHRISTIAN LIFE, selected from the most 
approved Spiritual Writers. By the Rev. C. PREMORD, A.M., L.L. 
Second Edition, revised and corrected ; and to which are added> 
" Letters on Matrimony on the Choice of a State of Life and on 
Monastic Institutions." In 2 vols. 12mo. 7s. cloth. 

GLAND, and on the Reformation in general. Translated from 
the French of the l{ Discussion Amicale," by the Right Rev. Dr. 
TREVERNE, Bishop of Strasbourg, by the Rev. W. Richmond. In 
2 vols. 8vo. boards, 

CONSIDERATIONS on the EUCHARIST, viewed as the Gene- 
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Abbe Ph. Gerbet, by a Catholic Clergyman. In 12mo. price 4s. 6d. 
cloth lettered. 

QUEENE BESSE. 12mo. price 4s. 6d. boards. 

Edition, 1 vol. foolscap 8vo. uniform with the Standard Novels, 
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" Considered as a romance, or rather as a novel instinct with genuine 
poesy, the poesy of action and of feeling, rre confess that we no sooner get 
to the end of it than we immediately wish to begin it over again. Con 
sidered as a composition, we commend it heartily to the student of style 
the English is elegant and finished; is polished to the last delicacy of re- 
fined elaboration. These are great merits; but greater are behind. For 
as a book of principle and of sentiment we have not words sufficiently. to 
exprc&s our respect for a morality so pure and so exalted as tnat which it 
vry charmingly inculcates. Oxford and Cambridge Review, Oct., 1845. 


Just published, in 8vo. price 2s. 

of MERRIE ENGLAND; when MEN had leisure for LIFE, and 
time to DIE; addressed principally to the Industrial Classes of his 
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the POPE S SUPREMACY? Answered in a Letter to LORD 
JOHN MANNERS from DANIEL ROCK, D. D. In Svo. price 3s. 6d. 

LISLE PHILLIPS, Esq., descriptive of the Estatica of Caldm-o 
and Addolorata of Capriana, being a Second Edition, Revised and 
Enlarged; to which is added the relation of three successive visits 
to the Estatica of Monte Sansavino in May, 1842. 8vo. price 
2s. 6d. boards. 

GREGORIAN MUSIC, with Chants, as used in Rome, for High 
Mass, Vespers, Complin, Benediction, Holy Week, and the Litanies. 
Compiled chiefly from Alfieri and Berti ; with the approbation of the 
Right Reverend Vicars Apostolic. By the Rev. JAMES Joxi I. 
Beautifully printed in red and black type, in small quarto, price 2s. b d. 


To the Rev. James Jones. " We approve of the Manual of In 
structions on Plain-Chant, or Gregorian Music, with the Chants, as 
used in Rome, for Higa Mass. Vespers, Complin, Benediction, Holy 
Week, and the Litanies, compiled by you chiefly from Altieri and 
Berti, and permit the use of it in our respective districts. 

JThomas, Bishop of Cambyso- AGeorge,Bp. of Tloa, V.A. Lane. D. 

polis, V.A.C.D. ;Ajames,Bp. of Samaria, Coadjutor. 

^Nicholas, Bp. of Melipota- ^Thomas Joseph. Bp.ot Apollonia, 

inus, Coadjutor. V.A. Welsh D. 

*Thomas,Bp.of Olena,V.A.L.D.J<Francis,Bp. ofAbydos, V. A.N.I). 
Ajohn, Bp. of Trachis,V.A. V.D. A William, Bp. of Longo, Coadjutor. 
4<William, Bishop of Ariopolis,!>|<Charles, Bp. of Pella, V.A.W.D. 

"September, 1845." 

" A perfect vade-mecum for the Priest and the Choir, where the Grego 
rian chant is preferred, as it always ought to be, to the unauthorized variety 
which prevails in most of our chapels and churches. The book is very 
neatly, nay, beautifully printed. We augur for it a deservedly extensive 
sale." Tablet, 25th October, 1845. 

"This book ought to be in the hands of every priest ; and by him forced 
into the hands of every chorister in his church." Dolman s Magazine for 

THE HISTORY OF THE CHURCH, translated from the Ger 
man of the Rev. J. J. IG. DOLLINGER, D.D., Professor of Theology in 
the Royal University of Munich, by the Rev. EDWARD Cox, D.D. 
President of St. Edmund s College. To be completed in seven or 
eight volumes. Vols. 1 to 4 are published, price 1. 14s. in cloth. 



CATHOLIC PULPIT, containing Sermons for all the Sundays 
aud Holidays in the year. 2 vols., 8vo , 11s., bds. 

SERMONS on various Moral and Religious Subjects for all the 
Sundays and some of the Festivals of the year, by the Rev. JAMES 
ARCHER, D.D. 2 vols., 8vo., .^1. is., boards. 

SERMONS for FESTIVALS, and a second series of Sermons for 
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ARCHER. D.D., forming one thin volume, 8vo., 2a. 6d., boards. 

SERMONS on the GOSPELS for every Sunday in the year, by 
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SERMONS for the DIFFERENT SUNDAYS of the year and 
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PEACH (Rev. Edward), A Series of Familiar Discourses for every 
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THE VESPERS BOOK, for the USE of the LAITY. 
According to the Roman Breviary, with the Offices of the English 
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arranged and translated by the Rev. F. C. HUSENBETH, with the 
approbation of all the Right Rev. the Vicars- Apostolic of England. 
Second Edition, price 4s., bound in coloured leather. 


We approve of the " Vespers Book for the use of the Laity/ no\dy 
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J<William, Bp. of Ariopolis, 


m, isp. 

APeter Augnstin, Bp. of Sign, 

>JThoma.s, Bp. of Cambysopolis, 


June 2 5th, 1841. 

^Nicholas, Bp. of Melipotamus, 


Fohn, Bp. of Trachis, V.A.Y.D. 
Thomas, Bp. of Olena, V.A.L.D. 
leorge, Bp. of Tloa, V.A.L.D. 
oinas Joseph, Bp. of Apol- 

lonia, V.A. Welsh D. 
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The NEW MONTH of MARY; or, Reflections for each Day of 
the Month, on the different Titles applied to the Holy Mother of God 
in the Litany of Loretto: principally designed for the Month of May. 
By the Very Rev. P. R. KENRICK. In 18mo., price Is. 6d. 

THE DEVOTION OF CALVARY, or Meditations on the Passion of 
our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, from the French of Father J. CRASSKT 
of the Society of Jesus. 

Done up in a neat wrapper, price One Shilling. 


evidenced by their Symbolical Writings. By JOHN A. MOEHLER, D.D., 
Dean of Wurzburg, and late Professor of Theology at the University of 
Munich. Translated from the German, with a Memoir of the Author, 
preceded by an Historical Sketch of the State of Protestantism and 
Catholicism in German for the last hundred years, by JAMES BURTON 
ROBERTSON, Esq., translator of Schlegel s " Philosophy of History." In 
2 vols. 8vo. price 14s. boards. Second Edition. 

" MOEHLER SYMBOLISM" is indisputably the most powerful defence of 
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mutual reconciliation of the two parties, by exposing unreservedly, though 
dispassionately, their differences on points of faith; the arguments being 
reduced, as it were, almost to a simple comparison of the authentic docu 
ments, of the different confessions. This celebrated work has already 
passed through FIVE Editions in Germany. 

Just published, in three Volumes, price 10s. 6d. each, cloth lettered,. 

THE FAITH OF CATHOLICS on certain Points of Contro 
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first five centuries of the Church. Revised and greatly enlarged, by 
the Rev. J. WATERWORTH. 


VOLUME THE FIRST. The Rule of Faith ; the Authority of the 
Church; the Marks of the Church, Unity, Visibility, Indefectibility, 
Apostolicity, Catholicity, Sanctity; the Roman Catholic Church; the 
Scriptures; the Church, the Expounder of the Scriptures; Private 
Judgment: Apostolical Tradition; the Councils. 

VOLUME THE SECOND. The Primacy of St. Peter and of his 
Successors; Baptism; Confirmation; the Eucharist; Discipline of the 
Secret; the Liturgies; Communion in One Kind; Sacrifice of the 

VOLUME THE THIRD. Penance, Contrition, Confession, Satisfac 
tion; Indulgences; Purgatory; Extreme Unction; Holy Orders; 
Celibacy of the Clergy; Matrimony; Relics; Invocation of Angels 
and Saints; Precepts of the Church; Fast of Lent; Ceremonies; 
Sign of the Cross; Holy Water, General Index. 

The FLOWERS of PIETY, selected from approved sources, and 
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The DIAMOND CATHOLIC MANUAL, containing Spiritual 
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The DEVOUT COMMUNICANT, or Pious Meditations and 
Aspirations for three days before and after receiving the Holy Eucha 
rist To which is added, a method of visiting the Blessed Sacrament 
with fervent Prayers and Acts of Devotion. By the Rev. P. BAKEK, 
O.S.F. Price Is. (Jd. ; bound in cloth, a new edition, in large type. 



The MISSAL for the USE of the LAITY : With the Masses for 
all the Days throughout the year, according to the Roman Missal; 
and those for the English Saints in their respective places. Newly 
arranged and in great measure translated by the Rev. F. C. HUBEN- 
RETJI. Fourth Edition, improved, with a Supplement, containing the 
New Masses recently authorised for England. Price 5s. 6d., em 
bossed roan, gilt edges, and 7s. calf gilt* 


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>hn, Bp. of Trachis, V.A.Y.D. 
homas, Bp. of Glenn, V.A.L.D. 
co.-e, Bp. of Tloa, V.A.L.D. 
homas Joseph, Bj. of Apol- 

lonia, V.A. Welsh D. 
^Francis, Bp. of Abydos, V.A.N.D. 

^William, Bp. of 

APetr-r Aumstin, BD. 

J<Thornas, Bp. of Cambysopolis, 

^Nicholas Bp. of Melipotamus, 

January 12, 1843. 

N. It. The Missal may be had either with or without Plates, at the 
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nastic Style of the Middle Ages, from designs by A. Welby Pugin, Esq. 
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some are splendidly bound in rich velvet, with metal gilt corners and 


Plates designed by A. Welby Pugin, 

2s. the Set, containing 
The Celebration of High Mass 
The Crucifixion 

The Adoration of the Shepherds 
The Annunciation 
The Resurrection 
The Descent of the Holy Spirit. 

N.B. Copies are kept on Sale 
with an Illuminated Title in gold 
and colours, designed by A. W. 
Pugin, Esq., in every style of bind, 

Twelve plates by Overbeck, 5s. the 

Set, or separately 6d. each, viz. 
The Nativity 
The Saviour seated, bearing the 


The Death of St. Joseph 
The Assumption of the B.V.M. 
The Last Supper 
The Mount of Olives 
Jesus stript of his Garments 
The Crucifixion 
The Entombment 
The Resurrection 
The Ascension 
The Descent of the Holy Spirit. 

Mrs. CALLCOTT, Illustrated with Twelve Drawings by the late Sir 

This work was privately printed for the Author in 1839, and is now 
for the first time offered for sale, price 7s. 6d., in imperial quarto, 
both lettered. 



Just published, Price Sixpence, 







%* Some vears back the publication of a SERIES OF HISTORICAL 
CATECHISMS was commenced with a Catechism of the History of 
England, published in 1840, after which the design was, from various 
causes, interrupted and delayed; but is now resumed with the intention 
of proceeding actively with the Series. 






Translated from the French by C. F. AUDLEY, Esa. 

In Two Volumes, 8vo. 

Just published in small Octavo, Price 4i., cloth lettered, illustrated with 

fine Prints of St. Ignatius Loyola and St. Francis Xavier. 
Translated from the Latin by CHARLES "SEAGER, M.A., with a 
Preface by the Right Rev. N. WISEMAN, D.D., Bishop of Melipo- 

Now in course of publication, in monthly parts, price 2s. each, a new 
and elegant edition, in large quarto, of the 

HOLY CATHOLIC BIBLE. Translated from the Latin Vulgate* 
Diligently Compared with the Hebrew, Greek, and other editions 
in divers Languages. The Old Testament, first published by the English 
College, at Douay, A.D. 1609 ; and the New Testament, first published by 
the English College at Rheims, A.D. 1582 ; with useful Notes, selected from 
the most eminent Commentators and the most able and judicious critics. 


Enriched with superb Engravings. Published with the approbation of 
the Right Rev. Dr. Scott, Bishop of Eretria and Vicar-Apostolic in 
the Western District of Scotland, and the Right Rev. Dr. Murdoch, 
Bishop of Castabala, Coadjutor. 

The work will be embellished with splendid Engraving? on Steel, and 
will be completed in about Twenty-five Parts, at 2s. each. 










Including the Account of the Life and Writings of the Rev. Alban Butler, 

by Charles Butler, Esq., and an Appendix containing copious General 

Indexes, Chronological Tables, &c. 

Handsomely Printed on Medium 8vo. t price ori<y THREE POUNDS, 

The same, illustrated with above Forty Plates; (Fine early Impressions) 

The original edition of the LTVT.S OF SAINTS, written by the Reverend 
Alban Butler, was published, in different portions, between the years 1754 
and 1760. The author died in the year 1773, having bequeathed all his 
manuscripts, and a valuable part of his library, to his nephew, Mr. Charles 
Butler, of Lincoln s Inn. 

In the short account of the life of Mr. Alban Butler written bv Mr. 
Charles Butler, it is noticed that, at the recommendation of Doctor 
Challoner, then the Vicar Apostolic of the London District of English 
Catholics, Mr. Alban Butler curtailed extremely the matter intended to form 
the first volume of the SAINTS LIVES, by omitting almost all the notes 
and some parts of the text. 

This volume contained the Lives of the Saints in the months of Januarv, 
February, and March. It was generally and warmly approved ; and the 
approbation of the notes was so distinctly expressed, that the entire text 
and notes were permitted to remain in the subsequent volumes. 

The whole impression of the Saints Lives were disposed of in the life 
time of Mr. Alban Butler. A new edition having thus become necessary, 
His Grace Doctor Carpenter, the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Dublin, 
was pleased to undertake it, at the request of Mr. Charles Butler. It was 
published in the year 1780, and contained all the notes and other materials, 
which had been omitted in the preceding edition, and some, which Mr. 
Alban Butler had subsequently prepared. A new edition which followed 
Doctor Carpenter s throughout, was published in Edinburgh, in the year 
1798, others followed. The best was published by Mr. Murphy, in 1813, 
and greatly surpassed all the former. 

This edition, stereotyped by Mr. Murphy, was extensively circulated and 
approved of ; but of late years became so scarce that it was difficult to pro 
cure copies, even at prices considerably enhanced. 

The stereotype plates, however, from which Mr. Murphy s edition was 
printed, being the property of the late James Kiernan, Esq., of Doctors 
Commons, who, in great measure, if not entirely, had borne the enormous 
expenses and outlay in stereotyping this important work, have been recently 
sold by the executors of Mr. Kiernan to the present publisher, who is 
rherebv enabled to offer to the public a reprint of this truly valuable and 

illustrated in Twelve Plates, engraved on steel from the designs of 

Proofs on India paper, price 10s. the set; single plates, Is. each. 
Plain prints, price 5s. the set; single plates, 6d. each. 


The Nativity -Jesus stript of his Garments 

The Saviour seated, bearing the i The Crucifixion 

Cross The Entombment 

The Death of St. Joseph ! The Resurrection 

The Assumption of the B. V. M. The Ascension 
The Last Supper The Descent of the Holy Spirit. 

The Mount of Olives 

Also a beautiful Engraving from the design of Frederic Overbeck, 
of the 

DEAD CHRIST and the BLESSED VIRGIN, engraved by 
LEWIS GRUNER. Proofs on India paper, 4s.; plain prints, Is. 6d. 

THE GOOD SHEPHERD, by Frederic Overbeck, engraved by 
LEWIS GURNER. Proofs on India paper, 3s.; plain prints, Is. 6d. 

Just Published, the Second Edition, enlarged, price Is. 

Just Published, in two Volumes, 12mo., price 10s., cloth lettered, 




1. The Vigil of St. Laurence. 2. Blanche s Confirmation. 3. The 
Sister Penitents. 4. The Altar at Woodbank. 5. Clyff Abbey, or the 
Last Anointing. . The Priest of Northumbria; an Anglo-Saxon Tale. 
7. The Spousal Cross. 

11 The Tales are told with great spirit and elegance. The Narrative never 
falters ; and a spirit of the purest and most profound piety breathes in 
every word." Dolman s Magazine, January. 


A SELECTION of ESSAYS and ARTICLES from the " Dublin Re 
view," by the Right Rev. Dr. WISEMAN, Bishop of Melipotamus. 

To form Two Volumes. 8vo. 
Subscribers names received by C. DOLMAN, and all other Booksellers. 

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Edited by the Rev. EDWARD PRICE, 
Aided by occasional Contributions from 

The Rev. DR. LINGARD, 
" Rev. DR. ROCK, 

" Rev. M.A.TlERNKY,F.S.A.,F.R.S. 







And many others. 

In consequence of the reduction in price, the first Four Volumes, bound 

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per vein me frwratvlu. 


DOLMAN S M AGAZINE. (Continued.} 

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after month more and more peculiarly the organ of the Catholics of England. 
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manifestly started to a mature and visible development. This intention was 
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